FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL NATURE

Introduction:
The search for the truth appears to be somewhat like the parable of the blindfolded men asked to describe an
elephant. Since they could not see the complete animal, each one approached the beast and tried to feel the
animal to obtain an impression of what was before them. One of the men embraced the leg and claimed: “An
elephant is like a tree”. Another one felt the trunk and said: “An elephant is like a serpent”. Yet another one
touched one of its ears and claimed the elephant was flat and leathery. They were all correct in one sense but
none could get the complete picture.
Similarly physicists all have advanced scientific yet partial knowledge of matter and energy and in many cases
have attempted to find a “unified field,” an equation that encompasses the explanation to all states; however,
nothing has yet been discovered that satisfies all experimental criteria.
Seven hundred years ago Dante’s vision provided the western mind with a comprehensive world view
integrating the various aspects of the universe into one magnificent whole. However, Dante’s cosmology
collapsed in the middle of the sixteenth century with the advent of the Copernican revolution, Galileo followed
suit although he was forced to recant by the Catholic Church ( the Pope issued an apology last year for this
imposition of dogma on reason.)     Newton, although a very religious mind, formulated his Principia following a
mechanistic model that left the creator in a position much as the creator of a clock that needed no intervention
when it was set into motion. “The period that started in 1543 with the publication of Copernicus’ De
Revolitionibus Orbium Coelestium, and ended in 1687 with the publication of Newton’s Pricipia Matematica
Philosophiae Naturalis, was a time of transition, a time in which Western civilization was devoid of a coherent set
of beliefs regarding the nature of reality.

Similarly, at the present time, we live, as Thomas Berry said: between stories
Max Plank, trying to find an equation that fit the results of hot body radiation, came upon a solution that
suggested that energy bundled itself into packages that he called “quanta”.
To explain this phenomena and the fact that subatomic particles sometimes exhibit a wavelike behavior and
appear to be discrete bundles of energy, quantum theory evolved based on probabilistic analysis of the
occurrence of these two states of matter/energy.
Probability or chance is a result of our inability to ascertain the causes that lie behind every outcome.
It is a useful tool but chance cannot be viewed as the cause of the observed phenomena.
Modern scientists are bewildered when quantum physics meets consciousness, therefore we would like to
present a new theoretical approach to these problems based on the very ancient scriptures called the Vedas.

There are two tenets of Vedic wisdom that will help us see clearly where the nature of the observer is a critical
factor to the truth:
1)        The observer is endowed with a particular set of senses through which he perceives reality.
2)        Perception depends on the consciousness of the observer.

To understand the evolution of modern western scientific thought we must see that it has been a result of
technological development that has permitted the observer to expand the abilities of his limited senses and
perceive reality at new and expanded levels. The Vedas also instruct us that the observer has three basic
limitations:
1)        Imperfect senses (even enhanced by modern technology our senses are still limited and imperfect)
2)        A propensity to commit mistakes (which we will see even in the great geniuses of our western scientific
endeavors)
3)        The tendency to cheat (sometimes in order to achieve our personal goals and obsessions we all try to
twist the truth a little)

“Albert Einstein was firmly committed to a world view based on three tenets: realism, the belief that the physical
world consists of objects which exist “from their own side” i.e. independently of consciousness; locality, the
assumption that an event in one place can affect an event in another place only if there is enough time for a
signal traveling no faster than the speed of light to propagate from one to the other; and determinism, the belief
that every present or future event can be fully accounted for as the effect of past causes. This last tenet was
encapsulated in Einstein’s phrase “God does not place dice”  
Often “quantum” is acclaimed as the “most successful theory in all of science. Most of its predictions have been
correct. Quantum mechanics has revolutionized our world. One third of our economy depends on products
based on it. However this physics can look like mysticism. Quantum experiments display an enigma that
challenges our classical worldview”
The fact is that quantum physics is a very convenient tool for dealing with the “unknown” world of microphysics
but cannot offer an explanation of conscious reality. Quantum physics is a very good response to the
uncertainty faced by scientific minds trying to analyze the new and little understood world of atomic and
subatomic particles.
This microcosmic world is not really visible to our senses but perceivable by technology that enhances our
perception. The question is when we extrapolate these perceptions to observed reality we come to strange
conclusions that may enhance “science fiction” librettos but do not coincide with nature as we encounter it.
Further, the macro cosmos, even when observed with the most modern radio telescopes, still leaves us
bewildered because we are (literally) microbes on the surface of a gigantic planet, which in turn forms part of an
even larger and most bewildering cosmos that has existed in times beyond our wildest dreams of historical
analysis.
Einstein simplified time into a mathematically comprehensible equation and measured it on an equal platform to
the first three dimensions. This allowed him to establish his “special theory of relativity” but caused a distortion
because time cannot be considered on an equal platform to space.
Time is the element that acts on everything else to produce change; time therefore is superior to space as we
will see later in this paper. Einstein's pursuance of “locality” failed him because he was stuck in the conception
that there was nothing faster than light in the universe.
The present paper suggests that there are two gross material “energies” that propagate faster than light:
Magnetic energy and Gravitational energy.

John Bell’s experiments on entangled states have been tested and re-tested under all kinds of modified criteria
and yet they still challenge locality (at the speed of light) and the quantum mechanistic views.
This paper suggests that beyond all material energies it is consciousness that is responsible for the
interconnectedness of the universe and consciousness itself exists at the micro and the macro simultaneously
and inconceivably exhibits individuality and oneness at the same time.
One of the basic tenets of the ancient Vedic tradition is that perception depends on the consciousness of the
observer. The same object viewed by two observers produces different impressions according to the
consciousness of each. Therefore it is expected that these notes will have different effects on different people;
however I am compelled to write them because they will serve as a meeting ground for people interested in this
subject matter.  It is my hope that in pursuing this discussion we will enrich our realizations.
Discovery in the realm of physics happen as new technologies enable humanity to expand its perception of
universal phenomena.  We have to be tolerant therefore when the general body of humans is seeing a flat
earth and Galileo, looking at the cosmos through the first rudimentary telescopes, declares that the earth and
other planets are spherical and floating in space.    

Technology has enabled us to experience very deep insights into matter and energy. These new concepts may
be so advanced with respect to the rest of humanity that they elicit unexpected reactions from the public and
other scientists that have not experienced things at the same level.
[I personally remember being told by the head of my department thirty years ago when I started reading Vedic
scripture: “I cannot believe that you, a young and brilliant scientific mind of our country, can believe this
superstitious hogwash.”]
Anyway, to best of my ability I have tried to elucidate my investigations of Vedic Science and bring them to the
western scientific mind.  My fascination with this vision is that it brings “unified field” theory back to the level of
common understanding and certainty of the nature of the observer and the observed.
In this respect I must admit my frailties as a scientist and as a Vedic scholar in presenting this paper, I am really
not adept at either of these disciplines, but still I am hopeful of its good reception by broad minded thinkers of
the scientific community.
In fact I am writing this paper as a proposal to investigate further into both the present scientific endeavors of
humanity at large and the new and enlightened translations and realizations  currently presented by the
topmost Vedic scholars and dedicated men who are attempting to be heard and quoted by “purified men who
are thoroughly honest”

Proposals for Research into the Elements of Material Nature as Explained in the Sankhya System of Vedic
Understanding

Introduction:

The scriptures of Ancient India are very vast and complex. Additionally there are many interpretations and
explanations that have complicated and confused scientific minds throughout the ages. We have found  a
modern translation contemporary scientific minds and self realized masters of the Vedic conclusions contains
the essential truths that we have been looking for to unravel the essential secrets revealed in these scriptures .
Modern technological discovery has permitted us to test some of the hypotheses presented here as factual. We
have therefore permitted ourselves to  present the current outline and propose that the current scientific
community investigate these conclusions in order to incorporate them in our present understanding of the
physical realm.
This outline is by no means exhaustive. Vedic scriptures are very vast and
deal with so many different topics that it can be very bewildering; however there are also short summaries.
This paper deals with Vedic science in its exposition of what is known as the system of “Sankhya” which begins
explaining the physical or gross energies, continues logically with the metaphysical or subtle material energies
and finally explains the spiritual or superior energies; it also describes in detail the processes to follow in order
to “realize” these truths.
In this paper we have simplified the scriptures considerably; so it is strongly suggested that the serious student
should study the original translations that are recommended in the bibliography.
For the sake of brevity we  also barely touch on the other elementary constituents of material nature that
accrue to a total of twenty six gross elements and the more subtle or metaphysical elements and only touch on
the higher topics of spirituality very lightly.

The Gross (Physical) Elements:
Modern science has been attempting to discover and describe the elements that constitute the matter/energy
continuum.  In this endeavor many discoveries and propositions have been achieved and innumerable
technologies that enrich modern society have been developed. However what constitutes an element still
escapes modern understanding.  The Vedas explain that an element is something that cannot be described in
terms of anything else; it is the essence of which all other things are made.
The periodic table is a most useful tool of modern day physics and chemistry but it does not actually describe
what elements are.
Vedic scriptures describe the physical or gross elements as:
Earth - Water - Fire - Air   and Ether
Modern analysis dismisses these terms as rudimentary and concentrates on the periodic tables of chemical
“elements”, which we know are not elementary in view of current atomic theory. Current physics has yet to
describe a set of energies or particles that constitute the essence of all that be.

The Proposition of Vedic Scriptures:
Current bona-fide translations of the Vedas contain detailed descriptions of what the elements are.  According
to these recent translations, elements are different separated energies emanating from the primordial energetic
source.
These energies constitute the fundamental principles of material nature which are described as:

Earth = the principle of solidity
Water = the principle of liquidity
Fire = the origin of heat and light
Air = the principle of motion
Ether = the ability to occupy space

These can be seen to be truly elementary because these are properties that cannot be defined in terms of
anything else.
Vedic science also clearly states that these are energies and that the observer, the living entity, is also an
energy emanating from the Supreme Energetic source.
The observer is endowed by the Energetic source with five gross senses of perception through which he can
perceive these energies in such a way that he can:
Smell
Taste
See
Hear
Touch
These energetic emanations are projected for his benefit and thus the observer enjoys and becomes
completely immersed in these energies in much the same way as our consciousness becomes immersed in a
movie (audio—visual experience)
Thus, material nature, according to this theory, is the projected combination of energies that we as observers
are able to smell, taste, see, hear and touch. Thus, according to the senses we have been endowed with, we
are immersed in a real energy matrix that we experience and enjoy and believe it to be all that exists.

What are these energies and how can modern science detect and analyze them?

Can modern technology prove this theory to be true?
The miracles of modern technology have enabled us to test some of these hypotheses, because these
energies are currently being utilized by modern man.
Technology has been able to release some of these energies and we can therefore derive some insight into
them; true scientific knowledge about their nature, however, evades us.

The First Element: Earth (the principle of solidity):

When what we know as elementary chemicals combine, we say that the chemical reaction is exothermic or
endothermic. For example the burning of carbon is depicted in chemistry as:
                                 C + O2   ==     C O2
This energy flow can be called “chemical energy” which we currently use in many ways; however we really have
not been able to define what it is in unquestionable scientific terms. This is because it refers to an elementary
energy which is the principle of solidity and impacts on our nasal membranes to produce the sensation of smell.

Proposed Investigations into Chemical Energy:
Scientists who are familiar with aromatic compounds and their synthesis may corroborate that in order to
reproduce a natural scent the solid configuration of the molecule of the natural aromatic has to be imitated,
because it is this configuration that impacts with the nasal membrane to produce the sensation of smell.
At this stage we propose further research into the latest advancements in the field of synthetic perfumery.  We
would like to interview scientists that have advanced knowledge in the fields of aromatics and the synthetic
formulation of perfumes and scents to discuss the further application of this concept and its validity.

Researching the Advanced Applications of Chemical Energy:
One of the current and most discussed topics is the substitution of petroleum distillates as the basis for our
current transport needs i.e. the internal combustion engine and the possibility of substituting oil as a primary
source of fuel for it.  The fact is that hydrocarbons mix with oxygen to form an explosive mixture that propels our
current motor pool. In addition to the problems pertaining to oil dependency current pollution of exhaust gases
is a problem to the environment.
Current pollutants seem to cause many problems to our body. The high incidence of asthma in our cities is a
major problem. Vedic scripture always describes the method of releasing the energy (by Yantra, Tantra or
Mantra) and the ways in which the energy can be retracted and the perfect teacher is supposed to teach his
pupil how to release the energy as well as how to retract it or cure its negative effects. In this respect there are
some advances in aromatherapy that merit investigation.  Steps can be taken to balance the imbalance caused
by pollutants.
Vedic science explains that combination of lighter elements results in more energy.   One of the lightest
combinations that we can use is hydrogen and oxygen. These two in the correct mixture will combine to produce
water.

Many brilliant minds in the past were aware of this and carried out investigations. We even know of a Bolivian
inventor Francisco Pacheco that was invited to the USA to demonstrate his fuel from dea water (see
Appendices)

Perhaps the most interesting and successful inventor was Professor Yull Brown, after whom the compressed
stoichometric mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and oxygen was named took the lead in this area of
research in 1977. Unfortunately he could not really explain the reasons why the flame produced by his gas
behaved in such marvelous fashion. Additionally, because he refused to sell his patents to big oil multinationals
he was subjected to a smear campaign and eventually disappeared from public view.
We include as Appendices some serious reviews of his work including experimental data and reviews of his
demonstration before Congress that he could decontaminate radioactive waste.  
Many inventions have been developed that claim that we can run our carpool on water; this appears to the
public to be impossible yet it is possible. Almost every inventor in this field has been the subject of smear
campaigns and some claim they are persecuted; some mysterious deaths have happened. There are many
inventors that have followed these advances in the underground and the internet has many offers of devices
that will increase your mileage by simply mixing fuel with brown’s gas; these merit serious testing.
Many who have performed this experiment have seen that the flame produced from this gaseous mixture has
extremely high energetic potential demonstrated by its metal cutting ability and other properties unexplainable
by current science.

Welding equipment that uses this mixture has the ability to braze radically different metals together without filler
because the reaction is not explosive but implosive. The use of such a gaseous mixture for running a present
day engine does not require extensive modifications.

Currently there are many companies offering this possibility known as Brown’s Gas or HHO. It would be very
interesting to scientifically compile their  experiences, many of them have developed injectors that combine
fuels-- diesel or gas-- with Brown’s Gas and claim that the system saves 30-50% on fuel usage in the cars and
cleans the exhaust gases considerably. I have included some documents about this experience in the
appendices.

The Second Element: Water (the principle of liquidity)

Electricity is a widely used and a technologically relatively well understood phenomenon; however its real
nature has defied explanation: is it that electrons flow one way? Or is it that protons flow the other way? We
know that it is some kind of flow; electricians call it “juice” colloquially. We propose for the purpose of this study
that it actually is an elementary energy and therefore it defies description in terms of any other energetic
principle.
By applying the Vedic frame of reference that this energy is perceived by the sense of taste and the
explanation that for taste sensation to occur the tasted substance has to be in touch with water (on a dry
tongue there is no taste) The tongue can  therefore be seen as a very delicately balanced detector of minute
differences in electric current produced by substances as they dissolve.

Proposed Investigations on this Elementary Energy (electricity):

Scientists that are familiar with the tongue will corroborate that it is minute and very exact changes in the pH of
substances that produce the taste sensation upon the tongue. I assume that the whole artificial flavoring
industry bases its applications on this principle currently.
  Compounds that produce flavor when entering into solution ionize and between the different ions there is a
pH particular to the substance. For instance Salt, NaCl, when dissolved in water become Na ++  and Cl-- and
between these ions there is a potential difference that produces a small electric current, this current is detected
by the tongue and produces the sense of taste. Imitating a flavor entails carefully approaching the pH that the
original favor has e.g. Citric acid = lemon.

Possible areas of technological advancement in the area:

Investigators in the field can further elaborate on this concept and will corroborate that in order to imitate a
flavor the pH of the naturally produced taste has to be imitated. Of course the illusion is helped by the
combination of taste and aroma.
At this stage we would like to propose to interview scientists that have advanced knowledge in the fields of taste
and artificial flavorings, sweeteners etc. and present this theory for further elaboration.
Taste in the Ayurveda, the Vedic science of health, is the basis for balancing immune defense systems of the
body for total holistic health; the study of this topic with respect to modern allopathic medicine merits so much
research.
Another field of investigation deriving from Vedic indications as to the nature of this element is the fact that
certain Vedic scriptures will reveal that some compounds produce ionic dissociation in aqueous solutions that
produce sizeable potential differences according to the compound being dissolved; this should lead to the
possible development of more efficient accumulators and electric cells.

The Third Element: Fire (the origin of heat and light):
The Vedas explain that the origin of all heat and light in this universe is the Sun; other universes are separate
solar systems of varying complexity and may have one or many suns. Without the sun matter would be at
absolute zero.
Recent Nobel laureates on the field of what happens to matter at this point would be interested in discussing
this topic. Even light in the form of a laser beam was reduced (compressed) to a minimum, when fired through
liquid hydrogen at near absolute zero. Emerging from the liquid hydrogen the beam regained all its former
characteristics (expanded)
Every source of fuel available on this planet at one point in the past accumulated the Sun’s energy
The sun produces enough energy in one second to supply all this planet’s current energetic necessities for one
million years.  The fact is that our sun is an inexhaustible generator of energy that has enabled this universe to
manifest; we could learn to appreciate the worship of the sun by the ancients in a different light, not as some
sort of idolatry but as an enlightened conclusion of people who had a great insight into things as they are.
Vedic scripture explains that the sense of sight enables us to receive this energy.
Currently many of the ways that images are produced, like cathode ray tubes in TV and LED screens, use what
generally could be termed atomic photo imaging. Holographic imaging is definitely the next big development in
imaging that technology is waiting to develop. Television, one day will be in Holographic format. HDTV will be a
thing of the past.
In the famous epic, Mahabharata, Sanjaya is endowed with the ability to see exactly what was happening on the
battlefield of Kurushetra and directly project the images to the King Dhrtarastra even though the King was blind
from birth. Could radiation technology develop a way for the blind to see?
The development of atomic power has seen the development of weapons of mass destruction as well as great
power generating controlled fusion plants. However there is great fear about atomic energy in the eyes of the
public because we have not developed ways of counteracting the effects of either of these uses.
In the Mahabharata it is described that two pupils of the great teacher Dronacharya learned how to release
atomic energy (Brahmastra) but only one, the great warrior Arjuna, knew how to retract it; he in fact was
victorious while Ashvatama was punished and is said to still be suffering the effects of his negligence.
Whichever energy we use we have to learn how to correct the imbalance it may produce.
Since we have just entered the atomic age, we are actually utilizing this energy and have seen some wonderful
displays of its power but we are really not very knowledgeable of it.
Especially we do not fully understand the effects of atomic radiation on humans and the environment and we
are also ignorant as to how to decontaminate radioactive waste. The Vedas not only teach ways of utilizing
these energies but ways of retracting them.

Proposed Investigations on this Elementary Energy (Atomic Energy):

One of the most important current investigations that should be conducted is the way in which radioactivity can
be eliminated or counteracted. There are vast depositories of radioactive waste buried in different places in the
planet waiting for a catastrophe to happen. We have some indications on how radioactivity can be eliminated
based on Vedic scriptures and we suggest that this investigation be given top priority and resources. We have
some indications that high amperage low voltage currents can be used to eliminate radioactivity from
radioactive waste. This paper proposes developing these technologies to rid humanity of this potential danger.

The Fourth Element: Air (the principle of movement):

This energy is perceived by the sense of hearing.
We believe that the energy that flows between the north and south poles of a magnet (i.e. magnetic energy) is
this elementary energy.
Aside from the reproduction and transmission of sound through magnetic field modulation, present day
technology is using this energy in various ways.
However theoretical physics has not really mapped its importance in our present atomic age. According to
Vedic scriptures this energy is 10 times faster than light and contains therefore 100 times the energetic
potential of atomic energy.  Very enlightened scientists of our age have had some insight into this field.
Nicola Tesla had developed technologies based on this principle. We know that Tesla was well acquainted with
Vedic Scriptures and there are accounts that he even refuted the first impersonalist teachers that came to the
USA. His dream was to provide easily accessible electric power to all humanity by wireless transmission, but that
never came about.  
The Tesla generator, controversial because it appears to defy current physics (produces more energy that it
consumes), we believe is a device that releases this energy. There are many people who claim to have
developed such a generator and offer demonstrations. This technology claims to be a very inexpensive way to
power the grid and merits proper scientific investigation (we have included some interesting claims from
different websites in our appendices)


Areas of application:
Presently MRI technology uses magnetism to “map” the physical characteristic of our body and diagnose
affected areas.
There have been many developments in magneto-therapy that merit investigation. Magnets have been used in
India since time immemorial for healing purposes. Magnetic force stimulates circulation in different ways and it
merits deep investigation.
Moving from current physics to this the next level is a major step which needs reevaluation of the theories of
relativity, special relativity and quantum theory. In this respect we would like to point out that when Einstein
proposed his theory of relativity the famous equation:
E=Mc2
proposes that there is nothing faster than the speed of light.
Vedic science tells us that magnetic energy travels ten times faster.

Additionally John Bell proved experimentally and conclusively that dynamic equilibrium happened at a speed
faster than light. His experiments led to many developments of quantum theory but nobody could dissipate the
quantum enigma. In fact, light is affected by magnetic field and gravitational pull-- facts that indicate that light is
subjected to forces superior to itself.
Einstein's response was to elaborate the special theory of relativity in which he joined time and space in a
continuum. This is an incorrect procedure according to Vedic Science because time is considered the factor
that affects all other energies. Time is the direct manifestation of the energetic source upon the energies, thus
combining them in complex and marvelous ways that produce the varieties that the observer perceives. This
paper is a simplification of the complete presentation found in the third canto of Srimad Bhagavatam in the
Teachings of Lord Kapila .

Essentially quantum theory arises from Max Plank’s systematic desire to fit a suitable equation to hot body
radiation and he discovers that energy is bundled up in little packets he called quanta.
The enigma is-- what causes these bundles to exist? and why does nature create these bundles? Why do
these bundles exhibit properties that follow certain rules at one point and then suddenly become little bundles
that exhibit different properties?
Further more, if these bundles are changing in an apparently random way, how is it that matter itself and in fact
the whole Universe is in perfect equilibrium? (dynamic equilibrium)
Vedic scripture explains that the “Pradhana” or energetic emanation is bundled up into small packages or
“atoms” that enable Lord Brahma, the engineer in charge of creating each universe to build the universal
creations in all its varieties from gigantic planetary systems to the 8,400,000 species of living entities that
inhabit them.  Each created being is endowed with a specific set of senses that enables the body encasing the
“soul” or observer to perceive reality according to its desires and destiny. Thus from the creator “Lord Brahma”
himself to the smallest microbe each one perceives its environment with the same propensities: to eat, sleep,
defend and enjoy sexually. However the 400,000 human species are endowed with “rationality”, the ability to
inquire about their higher nature; therefore, philosophy and its dialogue evolves in the human species to
enable us to discover the truth.(6)
Vedic scripture further explains that everything is perfectly under the control of the Supreme Energetic source
and is achieved by expansions of this source entering each “atom” of creation and inhabiting the heart of every
living entity personally.
As observers, in our physical bodies, we are free to move in space, more and more as technology advances
but not free to move in time. In this material existence we are bound by time.
There are ways according to Vedic science that allow us to explore the past and future but they are beyond the
scope of this paper.
Time and space are not treated as a continuum in Vedic science. Time is the superior element by whose action
other elements combine and evolve.  We ourselves must in fact accept time as the factor that vanquishes our
very existence.
As most students of the way that energy flows in nature will testify: “in time by the laws of thermodynamics, we
cannot win, we cannot draw and we cannot quit playing”. Time determines how long we can play.
Quantum theory also solves many of the mathematical dilemmas as to dynamic equilibrium and the relationship
between nature and the observer; however any student of mathematics must realize that quanta and the
statistical laws of chance cannot be termed the “cause” of a certain state observed.
Chance is not a cause but the effect of our ignorance of the real and underlying causes of the effects observed.
Even a child will understand the following simple experiment:
We flip a perfectly flat coin and want to predict the outcome.

We say that there is 50% chance of being heads.

If we know exactly the forces exerted on the coin by the flipping thumb, the aerodynamic propensities and all
other factors affecting the flight of the coin to the place where it will come to rest in the ground, then we can
predict with 100% certainty whether it will be head or tails.

However because we “ignore” or are not bothered to find out the causal factors for the outcome, we state
statistically that there is a 50% chance of it being heads, therefore “chance” cannot be seen as a cause.

Quantum theory is convenient because we are in fact in ignorance of the real physical laws of nature. Because
it solves so many problems in atomic physics it has been accepted as a good theoretical basis; in the absence
of a true understanding of reality we really have no other choice.

Einstein was very firmly convinced about the principle of locality but presumed that locality happens at the
speedof light however he became bewildered because it happens at speeds faster than light.
Vedic science proposes that magnetic field is ten times faster than light and gravitational energy is one
hundred times faster than light. Yet locality happens even faster that these.

The Fifth Element: Ether (the ability to occupy space)

The ability to occupy space is an elementary energy according to Vedic science that is detected by the sense
of touch.  The sense of touch is the most subtle of all the sensory perceptive organs.
Gravitational field, which is an energetic principle that is elementary, is a topic of much speculative discussion in
modern science; there has been a lot of underground research into technologies about this energy and there
are some claims that the usage of two Tesla coils in a certain way produces an antigravitational field.
In the west coast of India there is a famous temple in Konark. This temple was famous because it had a
levitating deity of the Sun. This was achieved apparently by a magnetized iron framework aligned in a particular
way. The story goes that the magnetic field was causing Portuguese ships to deviate and capsize, so the
Portuguese eventually invaded the area and destroyed the magnetic structure.    
Recently experiments with matter at temperatures close to absolute zero appear to show that in this most
condensed space occupancy very interesting phenomena take place such as the compression of light waves or
laser going through it.
A simple experiment to verify that gravitation can be detected by touch could be to devise an obstacle course
for a person deprived of sight or in darkness and see whether they can detect objects as they approach them.  
Such an experiment will verify the Vedic perspective but further research into Vedic science is necessary to
explore the far-reaching consequences of this most subtle of the gross energies.

This presentation deals with the physical realm perceivable by our senses.  

The System of Sankhya in the Vedas goes beyond gross matter.
Beyond gross matter, Vedic science explains, there are three material energies of a subtler nature that cannot
be perceived by the senses and these are the mind, the intelligence and the false ego.

These three subtle material energies constitute  the subtle body which in modern metaphysical terms is
sometimes referred to as the astral body.

The mind is the elementary energy that serves as an instrument to manipulate the gross material elements.  
The symptoms of the mind according to Third Canto Srimad.Bhagavatam Chapter 26 text 27 are determination
and rejection which are due to different kinds of desires.  We desire that which is favorable to our sense
gratification and we reject that which is unfavorable to our sense gratification.  Thus the material mind is not
fixed, it simply accepts and rejects being led by the senses.

The next higher subtle material element is intelligence.  According to Srimad Bhagavatam Chapter 26 text 30
the functions of intelligence are to help in ascertaining the nature of objects when they come into view and to
help the senses.  In the Purport of this verse, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada explains intelligence is
the discriminating power to understand an object and it helps the senses make choices.  Therefore, intelligence
is supposed to be the master of the senses.  Verse 31 explains “doubt, misapprehension, correct
apprehension, memory and sleep, as determined by their different functions are said to be the distinct
characteristics of intelligence.”

The purport further explains that doubt is one of the important functions of intelligence; blind acceptance of
something does not give evidence of intelligence.  

The last highest and most subtle of the material elements is called false ego because it is not the real nature of
the observer. False ego is the image we have of ourselves.
The observer is superior energy, part and parcel of the supreme which in fact is the energetic source of all
these energies.  The observer is  infinitesimal, qualitatively equal to the energetic source but not the energetic
source.  The observer sometimes is described as marginal because he has the freedom of choice to dwell in
the superior energy and interact with the energetic source or become self-centered and thereby be covered by
this matrix of material elements.

From this entanglement he can rediscover his superior nature by three consecutive processes:

The First Level of Understanding the Absolute Truth:

The first is precisely what we are engaged in at the moment, scientific investigation and analysis through our
senses of perception. At this level the only possible outcome is that we will accept that energy is all that exists:
the observer, the senses and the objects of perception are all made up of energy.        Therefore since it is
also acceptable that energy cannot be created or destroyed, everything that exists has always existed and will
never cease to exist. All this is “eternal”. In Sanskrit this is termed “SAT”.  The realization of this level is called
Brahman realization, the realization of the “oneness” of this eternal energy/matter continuum.

The Second Level of Understanding the Absolute Truth:

The second process is one that many scientists experience and have experienced but cannot explain to others
is in fact a process often called “contemplation” - an inner journey in an effort to find the truth. Shimon Malin
calls it: “The experience of Real Knowledge or Knowledge Unlimited”. Heisenberg's experience in Prunns Castle
and James Franks description of Bohr in a state of contemplation are used here as an example, but we know
that in both the sciences, the arts and even in martial arts this deep search produces the most amazing feats of
discovery and accomplishment. In Vedic Science this is called meditation, abstraction from the objects of the
senses and deep insight into the “self” within. The result of this process is the discovery of “CIT” - Real
knowledge supplied from some kind of all knowledgeable source within—this is indescribable, but is known as
“Paramatma” realization which literally means Param=Supreme + Atma=Soul or Supersoul. This Supersoul it is
explained exists within our hearts and in the heart of every “atom” (atom in Vedic science is the smallest
possible particle of mater/energy) and is responsible for the interconnectedness that enables dynamic
equilibrium and solves Bells inequality and the “quantum enigma” and all other questions about what guides
every living being to a particular destination according to desires and necessities. Most modern programs that
promise the realization of our wildest dreams depend really of some kind of process by which we seek this inner
guidance.  

The observer is superior energy, part and parcel of the supreme which in fact is the energetic source of all
these energies.  The observer is an infinitesimal, qualitatively equal to the energetic source but the energetic
source.  The observer sometimes is described as marginal because he has the freedom of choice to dwell in
the superior energy and interact with the energetic source or become self-centered and thereby be covered by
this matrix of material elements.

Finally and most importantly is the pursuit of happiness, after many lifetimes of remaining in material
entanglement and pursuing our wildest dreams we become jaded, no material arrangement in fact satisfies our
real hunger for bliss, we then question this very wonderful inner guide as to how we can become happy and the
result is that we voluntarily submit to His will and develop a desire to love and serve Him, we are then directed
to a bona fide spiritual guide that engages us in His service according to our propensity and particular situation,
this in fact results in “ANANDA” - spiritual happiness or ever increasing bliss that fulfills all our hanquering.
This process dissolves the”false-ego” because it implies that we have to accept that we really do not know who
we are. We think we are the body consisting of five gross senses and the three subtle senses of mind,
intelligence and false ego. But it is precisely this type of thinking arising from the false notion that we are the
doers and the enjoyers that has allowed us to be entangled in this material matrix. Coming to the platform of
realizing that we are in ignorance and we need to accept the teachings and guidance of someone who has
already realized the truth dissolves our false ego. We have to become humble and accept guidance. Once we
are willing to follow instructions from someone who does, he allows us to enter back into the Superior Energy
known as Bhagavan realization. In time our real identity will be revealed and even in this life we will enter into
our eternal spiritual identity, this is not “pie in the sky” religion. It is not the kind of morality that teaches us that
if we are good we will go to heaven at the moment of death. It is the science of realization of the “self” and the
understanding the identity of the Energetic Source.

When we enter into understanding of the Energetic Source we become so fascinated by Him that His energies
become secondary to His wonderful personality.

At this point we see that all His energies are meant for His service and we can come to the platform of utilizing
them with purity of purpose for the supreme benefit of humanity. We do not ignore or abandon our search for
ways to use energy but we ask the right authorities on how to utilize them for the best result.

This process is known as Bhakti-Yoga or the science of linking to the Supreme through love and devotion in
our eternal positions as His servants.
In this respect and as far as ecologically safe ways of utilizing His energies is concerned, the verdict of the
Vedas is as follows:

There are three possible platforms of existence, namely:
The platform of exploitation: in which we are all involved to some extent or the other, in this platform we are
always borrowing energy at the expense of others, the big fish lives on the little fish, any energy flow that we
disturb in order to enhance our lifestyle, always has some effect on other living beings. There is no way to
avoid this.
The platform of renunciation: which is preached by faiths like Buddhism and Jainism, entails a state of freedom
from action a Nirvana which is like sleeping without dreaming. It is difficult to attain and not really consonant with
the active nature of the soul, therefore not really permanent.
The platform of dedication: which allows us to use everything that is available including the latest technologies
and scientific advancements in full cognition that they are actually being provided by the Supreme Energetic for
our benefit and we can approach Him by offering them back to Him in loving devotion much in the same
consciousness as a great sage bathing in the Ganges first offers its sacred waters to this great and mystical
river and then takes his bath.
This is the only secure platform there is and a person in this platform understands that his life is not in the
hands of the exploitative forces of the human race but in the hands of Krishna the Supreme Energetic.

“Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare
Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare”


Bibliography:        

(1)The Periodic Table into the 21st Century – Dennis H. Rouvray and R. Bruce King Department of Chemistry,
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
(2)A guide to the elements – Second Edition – Albert Stwertka – Oxford University Press
(3)Quantum Enigma—Physics Encounters Consciousness—Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner
(4)Nature Loves to Hide—Quantum Physics and the Nature of reality a Western Perspective
(6)Bhagavad Gita As it Is—AC Bhaktivedanta Swami—Mc Graw Hill 1972 edition
(7)Srimad Bhagavatam—AC Bhaktivedanta Swami—One Volume Edition—The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust
(8)Sri Brahma Samhita. Translated from the hindi edition of Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Maharaj

Appendices:

Bolivian Inventor:
Francisco Pacheco, a Bolivian inventor, was invited to come to the USA in 1943 by the U.S. Vice-President.
Why? To show off his new invention: a device that turns sea water into clean, combustible hydrogen on
demand. He used it to power just about anything. A chapter of the book "Suppressed Inventions and Other
Discoveries" is dedicated to his work. He patented his invention, demonstrated it publicly, and never found a
receptive ear in the circles of power that he thought would enthusiastically embrace it! He died, and his
invention died with him.

We have published the first book ever written on the history of running cars on water. To receive a copy, which
includes a DVD of interviews with water fuel device inventors, send $22.00 or $28.00 (intl) to:
Water Fuel Museum
P.O. Box 55558
Lexington KY 40555



Yull Brown “Brown’s Gas”

Sunday Telegraph (January 16, 1977)
"Brown’s Gas"
A Sydney inventor has refused a giant American oil company’s offer to buy out his method of turning tap water
into fuel. The offer is one of more than a dozen Mr Yull Brown, of Auburn, has received.
Mr. Brown’s invention allows oxygen and hydrogen extracted from ordinary tap water to be used safely for
almost any type of burning fuel. He envisages the day when cars, stoves, heating and most of industry can be
run on water or the gas extracted from it. He has perfected his invention in a cutting and welding torch, similar
to an oxyacetylene torch, which is 30 times cheaper than present torches and burns with a flame seven times
hotter.
Mr. Brown says his company has spent more than $650,000 on the invention, which has taken shape in his
backyard workshop over the past seven years.
"I will not sellout to any big company because they are all the same, protecting their interests", he said. "People
before have had similar inventions to mine and they have sold out and nothing has been heard of then
inventions again".
Alternate
"I don’t know whether the Americans want to buy it to use it or to take it right of the market and protect their oil
interests.
"I think that while there is a drop of oil left in the world they will try to stop alternate power sources, so I will
ignore their offer.
"Companies that sell petrol and industrial gas have invested millions of dollars in plant and steel bottles --- they
don’t want to know about an invention that can use 10 gallons of water to produce enough gas for 6 weeks’
work or to run a car".
Mr. Brown said he would start producing commercial models of his welding torch within the next couple of
months while a company in England did the same thing there.
He has patented his invention in 32 countries, and has entered into a $500,000 agreement with the English firm
for the production of his cutting torch.
Mr. Brown said the other offers --- from Britain and European forms --- would be considered.
"Only one Australian firm has approached me since I announced the perfection of my method last week, but I
would like to see all the other developments take place here".
The torches will incorporate an electric arc welder, will cost about $1300, and will produce about 10 cubic feet
of gas for about 6 cents.

Australasian Post (February 16, 1978)
[No Author / Title Info Available]
The most talked-about inventor in Australia today is Yull Brown of Sydney --- the man who uses ordinary water
as the fuel for all his inventions.
To non-scientific minds it must be a bit hard to swallow, but it’s all perfectly true. Mr Brown, 55, has succeeded,
among other things, in running a Mazda car, and Holden car engine on water fuel.
He worked as a laboratory technician for a while and later branched into business son his own.
A few years ago, a group of seven businessmen put up $700,000 in a company called Water Fuel Holdings to
finance Mr. Brown’s experiments.
But what was Mr. Brown’s original inspiration to use water as a fuel source? When we stop for a moment and
consider the possibilities of water-fuelled ships, cars, and even jumbo jets, it all sounds like something for a
Jules Verne novel --- and that, in fact, is where Mr Brown got his idea.
In 1875, Jules Verne in his book The Mysterious Island wrote the following passage:
"Water decomposed into its primitive elements, and decomposed doubtless by electricity, which will then have
become a powerful and manageable force. Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as a
fuel".
And that’s a fair assessment of how Mr. Brown does it. He produces his hydrogen-oxygen mixture by electrolytic
dissociation of water by electrolytic dissociation of water under the action of DC electrical current.
He has also successfully demonstrated a new type of welder, powered from energy derived from water that
could very soon make him a multi-millionaire.
Small wonder that a steady stream of scientists and electronics experts from all over Australia have been
beating a path to Mr. Brown’s modest laboratories in the outer Sydney suburb of Auburn.
It seems that just about everyone with a scientific mind in this country wants to know how Yull Brown’s
inventions work...
A short, solidly-built man with powerful forearms, Mr. Brown is aware that his inventions are bound to create a
lot of enemies in big business if and when they are ever launched into commercial use.
"Some businesses stand to lose millions when my inventions are accepted", he said, "so it would be a simple
matter for them to pay some gangster $10,000 and get me put out of the way.
"I used to carry a pistol in a holster on my belt until a few weeks ago. The police saw me wearing it on a
television interview and they came around the next day and took it away from me. All I’ve got to protect me now
is my German Shepherd called Ali Baba".
He separates the two gases by passing an electric current through water, and has devised a way of storing
them, as a mixture, with no more danger than in the handling and storing of other fuels.
Australian experts who have examined Mr. Brown’s work have agreed that he has made a notable breakthrough
in the field of oxy-hydrogen experiments.
Imagine Magazine (1988)
"New Alchemy --- Water Into Fire"
by Paul White
Yull Brown is the man responsible for that popular urban myth of the car that runs on water. When he first
developed his new water electrolysis process in the mid-70s he found a safe, non-explosive method of
separating water into oxygen and hydrogen. He built a device that converted his car to run on the hydrogen
from water, with oxygen as the only exhaust emission. He was shown on television at the time actually filling his
car with an ordinary garden hose!
A skeptical world was amused by the oddball news snippet. Then Mr. Brown began to have problems. He was,
of course, loudly denounced as a crank. Scientific experts were quoted as saying the new technology was
"physically impossible" and "ludicrous". Absolutely no one would give him a research development load.
Approaches to the automobile industry only brought derision. His bank foreclosed the mortgage on his home
and, shortly thereafter, he made television news again because of attempts made on his life. Shots were fired
into his kitchen.
Realizing that his new technology aroused the considerable opposition of different corporations, Yull Brown
disappeared from public view with his water-car and set off on another track to research and develop he new
electrolysis process he had discovered. The water-car became another urban myth along with crocodiles in the
sewers under the city.
Suddenly, last year, Mr. Brown surfaces with a way of turning water into fire. Under the corporate name of B.E.S.
T Aust. Pty. Ltd. He introduced a commercial range of revolutionary Gas Generator Welders. Disposing
completely with conventional bottled gas, this new water-powered system generates a gas mix called Brown’s
Gas which produces a flame that can cut, fuse, weld, solder and braze. Brown’s Gas has some remarkable
characteristics which include being able to weld a steel pipe to brick with perfect molecular fusion!
The new company tried to float on the Sydney Stock Exchange for development funds but a mysterious smear
campaign of crank phone calls defaming the product and claiming scientific documentation that proved fraud so
disturbed the Sponsoring Broker that confidence was lost and all funds were returned to investors. This year
(1988), with the enthusiastic backing of a Korean businessman, the company was floated again, quietly with a
minimum of fuss, on the Hobart Stock Exchange.
It may take a little while for the new technology to sink in but Mr. Brown reports an unprecedented avalanche of
enquiries and requests for information since the press reported his successful bid on the Stock Exchange. The
most startling claim by the inventor in the press is that the gas produced in his process can reduce nuclear and
toxic waste to harmless carbon.
Mr. Brown’s company is now in full production of the revolutionary new welding machines, and is making first
deliveries. A larger version of the device is about to be shipped to the USA where its ability to destroy plutonium
and other problem toxic wastes will be tested.
The Technology
In 1973, Prof Brown found that if hydrogen and oxygen were carefully mixed in the same proportion found in
water (two hydrogen atoms to each oxygen atom) they would burn much more safely. He developed the first
high efficiency electrolysis cell to produce his unique gas mix in a confined gas mix causes it to implode rather
than explode. It burns faster with higher efficiency than any other gas mix. The flame front propagates at 3
km/second compared with only 10 m/sec for oxy-acetylene. This means that with the gas burned at high
pressure extremely intense heat can be produced in a tiny volume.
In one instant the flame can be the temperature of a candle, and you can wave your finger through it. Then, it
will melt and split granite or fuse metal pipes to house bricks. Brown’s gas can reach 6000 degrees, the hottest
known temperature.
Tungsten, the most heat-resistant metal which melts at 3600 degrees, changes directly from a solid to a dark
gas under the welder.
Mr. Brown theorizes that the temperature of the flame is determined at the surface of the material through an
interactive process between the hydrogen molecules and the atomic bonds in the object being welded.
Essentially, he argues, this is a controlled thermonuclear reaction.
To use Brown’s gas as an energy source, it is detonated by a spark which immediately forms a vacuum.
Atmospheric pressure then sucks water or any other liquid through a container or hollowed area, electricity and
water are the only elements needed to activate and fuel the unit. Yull Brown has converted the engine of his
car to run on the mix. Atmospheric pressure forces the pistons down into the cylinders to occupy the near-
vacuum caused by the implosion of the gas.
One wonders if the now much-mooted Greenhouse Effect might break down the resistance of certain major
corporations to Brown’s gas generators being used to run cars and aircraft run on water sooner rather than
later. Indeed, this remarkable Australian technology may have surfaced just in time to offer a healthy alternative
to present polluting power sources.
The water generator and welder have up to 30 different applications covering the following technical areas:
Glazing and kiln operation, mining and mineral separation, drying of foods, rocket fuel production, silica
conversion, primary production, irrigation, etc. Techniques are: Air-conditioning and cooling, coal to oil
conversion, pollution, smoke cleaning and disintegration of toxic waste, cheap hydrogen production, welding
and brazing, liquid displacement, water pumps, graphite production, industrial and somatic heating and
cooking, motor-cars, railways, ships, waste gas conversion, vacuum systems, and the timber industry.
Don’t look back but it looks as if the future may well have arrived!
________________________________________
Unidentified Text
"Yull Brown’s Gas"
Dr Brown’s Gas Production Differs From Electrolysis of Water
The electrolysis method of separating water into its components of hydrogen and oxygen is accomplished by
passing an electric current through water and is known since the early 1880s. Though various methods of
water electrolysis have been developed, these require that the two gases, hydrogen and oxygen, are passed
into separate chambers due to the volatile nature of the gases when mixed. If a volume of hydrogen is mixed
with a volume of oxygen in a percentage greater than 5%, a violent explosion occurs.
Likewise when oxygen is mixed with hydrogen. Water electrolysis cells are generally not an efficient or
economic source of energy.
Brown’s proprietary process results in Brown’s Gas, a gas containing ionic hydrogen and oxygen in proper
mixtures which is generated economically and safely and which can be compressed up to 100 psi.
It was first patented in Australia in 1977, with patents granted in over 30 countries since. Six models of
generators are in production.
Brown’s Gas Implodes to Vacuum + Water
With his system, 1 kWh of electricity produces 340 liters of gas. One unit of water yields 1866.6 units of the gas
--- and the inverse applies as well. Upon ignition, Brown’s Gas implodes --- resulting in 1865.6 units of vacuum
with one unit of water. The end result of implosion is always pure water. The vacuum may be generated in a
device without moving parts.
Thermal Effects of Brown’s Gas
Standard blowtorches may be used to burn the gas, ignition being obtained with a hot spark. Thermal energy is
generated by the interaction of ionic oxygen with the material coming in contact, while the ionic hydrogen
penetrates the material beyond the oxidizing (heated) matrix domain, permitting a cooling effect beyond. Brown’
s Gas has achieved temperatures at above 6000 C --- the temperature of the sublimation of Tungsten (1/8"
diameter tungsten rod will vaporize within 30 seconds). Evaluations show that Brown’s Gas welding is anywhere
from 7.06 to 58.33% less expensive than oxy-acetylene gas welding, depending on cost of electricity. The
generators used for welding purposes are manufactured by the major high-tech Chinese manufacturing facility,
NORINCO in Baotou, sold by Brown’s Gas International Corp. in the USA.
Ultra-Performance Fuel for Engines
The February 9, 1978 Hansard of the New South Wales Legislative and Legislative Assembly in Australia
reports that Yull Brown has driven his car 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) tone gallon of water.
Brown’s Gas for Deep-Space Life Support
Brown’s Gas has been found to be of particular value in replacing air, helium and oxygen for deep-sea
breathing. It permits doubling of the depth of manned diver penetration to about 2,050 meters (over 6,750 feet)
without narcosis effects, and full working capacity despite the high pressures, as was demonstrated in 16-day
tests.



Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Vol. 8(3)
"Brown’s Gas"
by Floyd Farley
Extracting Precious Minerals
This report is strictly a preliminary report on using the flame from Brown’s gas BN-200 Gas Generator extract
complex Sonora Desert ores for assaying. It is in no way to be construed as neither a final answer nor a
methodology in the pretreatment or treatment of ores for precious metal recovery.
Many months, if not years, of research still remain before any real answers can be given with any degree of
certainty as to the effectiveness of the treatment of ores that exist in the world.
Tests completed to date by this writer are on ore from three mines near Tonopah, AZ. They are: Hummingbird
Group, Sierra Associates, and Number Three Mine. Ore from all these mines were known to contain gold, some
silver, and the platinum group. Silver, because of its low quantity and low price, has been discounted in these
tests. These ores are a complex of many elements and compounds and have not been workable with any of the
commercial processes for recovery of precious metals. Recovery can be made on the laboratory bench, but no
commercial process has been developed that will work. In addition, the values in these ores can’t be
concentrated.
Otherwise Economical Recovery
The complexity of the ores causes them to be not amenable to any type of fire assay, giving very little or no
metals in the copal. Assays can be made with complex, uneconomical chemical processes in the lab. Attempts
to scale up with these processes have been dismal failures.
Tests conducted by this writer and his associates initially were with 1/6 assay ton samples. The flame was
played across and through the ores for different lengths of time and the changes in colors and reactions was
noted.
These samples were then fire-assayed using a straightforward, common flux, crucible fusion, copal method.
Surprising results occurred the first time with odd-looking odd-colored beads remaining in the copal. These
beads were then weighed and pasted with hot dilute nitric acid to expel silver, palladium, and other unwanted
metals. The remaining particles were again weighted and digested in aqua regia.
Successful, Enhanced Recovery
The gold was then precipitated out and the residuals were again put back in solution to digest the platinum and
the rhodium and the precipitants reduced to metal and weighed.
Metal recovery was consistent with the AA readings. The chemical assay results were read on the AA and no
attempt was made to recover the metals, as the AA readings were consistent with readings and recoveries from
the fire assays. A third set of tests has confirmed these results. A videotape is being made that will show is
being made that will show the methods used, the reactions taking place and results.
The important discovery here is the ability after flame treatment to use a straightforward fire assay to determine
the values in the ore. To this writer’s and to his associate’s knowledge, this has never been done with any
degree of certainty or consistency. Also, never has the platinum from these ores been this easy to get in hand
as metal.
Gold values were somewhat lower (1.86 oz/ton) than previous tests would indicate; however platinum (17.2 oz)
and rhodium were higher. These tests have proven what was known: that these ores carry extremely good
commercial values, even though no process existed to extract them.
The next set of planned tests will attempt to determine dwell time upon each of these ores for maximum assay
recovery. Through noted microscopic matrix changes in the ores, attempts to concentrate the values will also
be made.
________________________________________
Extraordinary Science (October-December 1990)
"Brown’s Gas --- A Global Technological Breakthrough"
by Robert Card
Tomahawk Resources, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada)
What is Brown’s Gas?
Brown’s Gas is the product of the dissociation of water by electrolysis, using the gas generator patented world
wide by Professor Yull Brown. It is a completely safe, compressed stoichometric mixture of atomic and molecular
hydrogen and oxygen. It is colorless, odorless, lighter than air, and non-toxic.
Properties of Brown’s Gas
Brown’s Gas burns with a clean flame. It will burn in a vacuum, or under water. It uses no atmospheric oxygen,
and creates only pure water as its sole combustion product.
Brown’s Gas contains no hydrocarbons, and therefore is incapable of producing carbon dioxide, or any other
atmospheric pollutant, when ignited.
Brown’s Gas cannot explode; indeed, it implodes upon ignition. One liter of water produces 1860 liters of gas.
When this gas is ignited, the volume is reduced to the original one liter of water. This characteristic is very
useful in the creation of near-perfect vacuums.
Brown’s Gas is produced from a very plentiful fuel, water, and is may times less expensive than conventional
bottled gas.
Very high temperatures are obtainable when Brown’s Gas is ignited using a standard torch. Brown’s Gas is
strongly ionized, and exhibits many of the characteristics of plasma, at a small fraction of the cost.
Advantages of Brown’s Gas
Brown’s Gas is derived from ordinary water, a plentiful and readily available fuel, is safe and pollution-free, and
presents no hazard to the environment.
Due to its stoichometric nature, Brown’s Gas normally burns with a perfectly neutral flame. This flame can be
modified, fluxed and switched from a reducing to an oxidizing flame at extremely high frequencies.
The heat is highly concentrated, can be applied with extreme accuracy and is axial in nature.
Brown’s Gas is produced on demand, where and when needed so no storage is required. It can, therefore, be
used in locations where bottled gas is prohibited.
Since Brown’s Gas is lighter than air no dangerous concentrations of gas are likely. Since it uses no oxygen
from the atmosphere, it can be used safely in closed spaces. Brown’s gas is completely safe to generate and
use, is pollution-free and does not contribute in any way to the greenhouse effect.
All Brown’s Gas Generators are subject to a one-year guarantee against defective materials and workmanship.
Features of the Brown’s Gas Generator
Brown’s Gas is supplied at 280-400 kpa (40-60 psi).
Brown’s Gas is produced at the rate of approximately 340 liters per kilowatt of DC electricity.
Brown’s Gas Generators are fully safely, and are approved for manufacture and use by the New South Wales
Department of Industrial Relations.
Have an automatic, fully regulated pressure system. They are equipped with a pressure regulator, and
pressure, voltage and amperage gauges. Bo internal compressor is required, the gas is generated and
pressurized with no moving parts.
All units are compact, mobile, solidly constructed, with a durable baked enamel finish.
The Brown’s Gas Generator is easily installed, as well as simple and safe to operate.

Eagle Research Water Torches
"The Eagle-Research 'ERxxxx WaterTorches' are superior to historical watertorches in most areas; including
lower initial cost, long term reliability, efficiency of gas production, safety, ease of operation, small size, light
weight and almost silent when producing gas.
"For technical questions, ordering details, shipping quotes, etc. contact: watertorch@eagle-research.com
"Eagle-Research is working with people around the world to develop the Brown's Gas technology. This patent-
free exchange of information has resulted in an avalanche of progress in the Brown's Gas research. Free
cooperation has made tremendous progress developing Brown's Gas machines that are far superior to
anything that has existed until now.
"For people who wish to find out more about Brown's Gas, a large portion of the history and development of
Brown's Gas research is detailed in 'Brown's Gas, Book One'. It also gives most of the mathematics needed to
understand Brown's Gas and the theory behind the Gas.
"'Brown's Gas, Book 2' contains all the needed information to home-build a safe and easy to use commercial
sized Brown's Gas electrolyzer (several people have now done it, using surplus components). The latter part of
Brown's Gas, Book Two points out some misconceptions and myths about Brown's Gas that that Eagle-
Research has been able to prove false with actual experiments. However, Brown's Gas has many wonderful,
beneficial applications."... www.eagle-research.com (George Wiseman).

References
Nexus Magazine ( US: PO Box 177, Kempton, IL 60946-0177, Ph: 815 253-6464 ~ Australia: PO Box 30,
Mapleton, Qld 4560, Ph: +61 (0)7 5442-9280 ~ Netherlands: PO Box 372, Dronten 8250 AJ, Ph: +31 (0)3210
80558 ~ UK: 55 Queens Rd, East Grinstead, W. Sussex, RH19 1BG, Ph: +44 (0)1342 322854 ) ~ Issue No 7,
Summer 1989, "Fire From Water" ~ Issue No 8, Autumn 1989, "Jules Verne to Yull Brown, An Urban Myth Come
True" ~ Issue No 9, 1989-1990, "Water Power--Fuel of the Future Today"
Extraordinary Science Magazine ( PO Box 5636, Colorado Springs, CO 80931, Ph: 719-475-0918 ) ~ Vol 5 (3),
Jul-Aug-Sep 1993, "Brown's Gas, A Revolutionary Breakthrough"
Explore Magazine ( PO Box 1508, Mt Vernon, WA 98273, Ph: 800-845-7866, 360-293-3282 ) ~  Vol 3 (2),
1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown" (Part 1); Vol 3 (3), 1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown"
(Part 2) ~ Vol 3 (6), 1992, "Fire From Water, Saga of Yull Brown" (Part 3)
Planetary Association For Clean Energy ( 100 Bronson Ave, Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1R6, Ph:
613 236-6265 ) ~ Vol. 6, No 4, "Transmutations of Radioactive Materials with Yull Brown's Gas"
MaxaPower Technical Bulletin (16625 Redmond Way, Redmond, WA 98052 ) ~ "The Aqua-Phase Shift
Technology 1991"
http://www.pureenergysystems.com/academy/papers/Common_Duct_Electrolytic_Oxy-Hydrogen.htm
William A.Rhodes --- Common Duct Electrolytic Oxy-Hydrogen --- Claims precedence over Brown (Brown
references Rhodes' patents:USP # 3,262,872 and 3,310,483)
KeelyNet (04/11/02)
"Difference between Rhodes Gas & Browns Gas" -
The following item was printed in the February 1998 PACE (Planetary Association for Clean Energy) newsletter
and is followed by a response from Dr. William A. Rhodes, Yull Brown is now deceased.
'An inventor who has been referenced before issuance of the Yull Brown patents is now making claims on the
Internet for precedence for generation and single-ducted use of mixed atomic hydrogen and oxygen. William A.
Rhodes of the Arizona State University, refers to his US patents 3,262,872 issued July 26, 1966 and 3,310,483
of March 21, 1977, about 5 years before Yull Brown discovered his process in a small Sydney, Australia lab in
1971. Over 20 examiners, from Australia to the United Kingdom, did not agree when they granted some 30
patents to Yull Brown in the mid-1970s.
The mixed gas produced by the Rhodes system is different and does not have the unique - and for most
conventional scientists - 'anomalous' physical properties of Brown's gas. Essentially, Brown's gas comes
already mixed and compressed at determinable levels, straight out of the electrolysis, while the Rhodes' system
is mixed in a 2:1 ratio after electrolysis prior to membranes and onto conduits and then to the torch.
Brown’s gas burns in a vacuum, is subject to implosion - as a single reaction - when sparked or heated, has a
variable flame temperature of about 138 C to over 6,000 C at which tungsten sublimates and allows
transmutation.
The Rhodes system allows for a production in 20, 75, 150 and 300 liters of mixed gas per hour. While 340 liters
of Browns Gas are generated per 1kwh, only 167 liters of the Rhodes mixed gas are. The Rhodes system can
use an 'outboard' alcohol booster tank that increases BTU output while decreasing the flame temperature of
the standard 3,315 C to about 1,930 C.
The Rhodes system is manufactured by Arizona Hydro Gen Manufacturing, 4225 East Madison Street, Phoenix,
AZ 85034. It has applications in welding, soldering, polishing and annealing in industrial electronics, jewelry
manufacturing, dental laboratories, glass, ceramic and plastics industries. Details: Dennis McMurray at 602-275-
4126, FAX 267-8787.'
Date: Mon, 01 Apr 2002
From: WILLIAM A. RHODES
To: Jerry Decker
TO: Planetary Association for Clean Energy
I am William Rhodes, whom your following newsletter was aimed at.
Since my research documentation covering my invention of the Single Ducted Oxy-Hydrogen system was
complete on Keelynet (see links below), I am puzzled by your statements. However, your questions will be
answered for correction further clarification (Yours in quotes.):
"An inventor who has been referenced before issuance of the Yull Brown patents is now making claims on the
Internet for precedence for generation and single-ducted use of mixed atomic hydrogen and oxygen. William A.
Rhodes of the Arizona State University refers to his US patents 3,262,872 issued July 26, 1966 and 3,310,483
of March 21, 1977, about 5 years before Yull Brown discovered his process in a small Sydney, Australia lab in
1971."
** I am *now* making claims? Look at Yull Brown's first U.S. patent. My patent is clearly listed as a reference
there and dated 11 years prior to his. I used two years of experimenting before going for a patent. **
"Over 20 examiners, from Australia to the United Kingdom, did not agree when they granted some 30 patents to
Yull Brown in the mid-1970s."
** What did Examiners not agree on? Certainly it cannot be my date of issuance or the invention itself? If not,
then what? So far, this dealt with non-applicable trivia. Many patent attorneys get jobs with the patent office
because they were not intelligent enough to remain in private practice. I have about 60 patents.
One case involved technology so strange I was attacked as a fraud, and my application rejected. Time does not
permit details except to say, the invention was gross simplification of an electrostatic generator using water
dripping through two open cans. It's predecessor existed for sale in an old Central Scientific catalog. It
contained four cans. I ripped out the page and mailed it to the examiner with a note that said, "If I am a fraud,
then the company selling its equivalent is also a fraud." US 2,742,58l patent issued immediately. Now, lets look
at more of your complaints. **
"The mixed gas produced by the Rhodes system is different and does not have the unique - and for most
conventional scientists - 'anomalous' physical properties of Brown's gas. Essentially, Brown's gas comes
already mixed and compressed at determinable levels, straight out of the electrolysis, while the Rhodes' system
is mixed in a 2:1 ratio after electrolysis prior to membranes and onto conduits and then to the torch."
** I would certainly appreciate your explanation of what is unique about Brown's Gas. I examined his patent and
find nothing different in his gas from mine. In either case compression of such gases must not approach 400 psi
where auto-ignition occurs. Rhodes gas likewise comes straight from the electrolysis tank, ALREADY MIXED,
but NOT in a 2:1 ratio. It is a stoichometric mixture of 1:1 (atom for atom). A 2:1 ratio cannot be stoichio- metric
and would cause incomplete burning. There are no membranes and "conduits". Mine is a single conduit.
Whoever wrote this either did not read, did not understand, or too hastily scanned the document on Keelynet. **
"Brown’s gas burns in a vacuum, is subject to implosion --- as a single reaction --- when sparked or heated, has
a variable flame temperature of about 138 C to over 6,000 C at which tungsten sublimates and allows
transmutation."
** Excuse me! There is no scientific reason why any combustible gas mixture chosen would not burn in a
vacuum. This is an oxymoron. The degree of vacuum is not mentioned. Not much of a vacuum can exist with
combustion occurring in it. The pumping system merely sucks gases out the burner orifice. "Implosion?"
Implosion always occurs in both Brown and Rhodes. All hot gases "implode" on a continuous basis, with
continuous combustion. To be proper, it should be called "volume shrinkage". When combustion ceases,
regardless of the gas species used the byproducts of combustion and internal atmosphere SHRINKS toward
ambient pres- sure. This is just plain high-school physics, in open air or partial vacuum. So far the author has a
failing grade in physics. This implosion myth has been circulating many years. It comes from the scientifically
ignorant. **
"The Rhodes system allows for a production in 20, 75, 150 and 300 liters of mixed gas per hour. While 340
liters of Brown's Gas are generated per 1kwh, only 167 liters of the Rhodes mixed gas are. The Rhodes system
can use an 'outboard' alcohol booster tank that increases BTU output while decreasing the flame temperature
of the standard 3,315 C to about 1,930 C."
** How were the liters per k
Advanced transmutation processes
and their application for the decontamination of radioactive nuclear wastes

A. Michrowski
President, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Inc.



Abstract:
There are deviations to the standard model of radioactive atomic nuclei decay reported in the literature. These
include persistent effects of chemical states and physical environment and the natural, low-energy
transmutation phenomena associated with the vegetation processes of plants. The theory of neutral currents is
proposed by Nobelist O. Costa de Beauregard to account for the observed natural transmutations, also known
as the Kervran reaction. "Cold fusion" researchers have also reported anomalies in the formation of new
elements in cathodes. This body of knowledge provides the rationale for the observed and successful and
developed advanced transmutation processes for the disposal of nuclear waste developed by Yull Brown
involving a gas developed by him with a stoichiometric mixture of ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen compressed
up to 100 psi. Another procedure, still in experimental stages, involves the environmental interaction of non-
Hertzian electromagnetic fields and targeted radioactive samples. In both methods, the radioactivity in samples
decreases by up to 97%  rapidly and at low cost.

Since the discovery of natural radioactivity, it was generally believed that radioactive processes obeyed orderly,
simple decay rate formulae and that nuclear processes operated completely independent of extra nuclear
phenomena such as the chemical state of the system or physical parameters such as pressure or temperature.
A solid body of scientific literature describes a small percentage variation of the order of 0.1 to 5% in the decay
constant under a variety of chemical and physical conditions. [7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 23, 28]

The standard definition of half-life or half-decay time is the time taken by a given amount of a particular
radioactive substance to undergo disintegration or decay of half of its atoms.  Measured half-lives vary from
less than a millionth of a second to billions of years in the case of Uranium. There are four modes of decay,
three are named after the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, i.e., alpha, beta and gamma and the fourth
is the recently discovered proton decay.

Current model of decay
By way of review, for the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, the nucleus is composed of the heavy particles or
hadron or the proton and the neutron, and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons (or light particles or leptons)
the number of which depends on the atomic number (for neutral atoms) and also the valence state (for ionized
atoms). Alpha particles are Helium nuclei, 4He2 consisting of two protons and 2 neutrons; beta particles are
electrons (negative charge) and positrons (positive charge) and gamma rays which are in the short wave length
of the electromagnetic radiation band; the proton is a hadron. Alpha particles and protons are strongly
interacting particles as are all hadrons.

The current model of beta decay is that an inter nucleon neutron spontaneously decays into a proton and an
electron (or beta particle and an anti-electron neutrino, no p. + e. + c.  A neutrino is a zero-rest mass spin 1/2
particle which conserves momentum in the decay process. There are many pure beta emitters throughout the
periodic table; Carbon 14C and deuterium are two examples. Beta particles penetrate substance less deeply
than gamma radiation but are hundreds of times more penetrating than alpha particles.  Beta particles can be
stopped by an inch of wood or by a thin sheet of aluminum foil, for example. The energy of most emitted alpha
particles are stopped by a piece of paper and the most energetic gamma rays require a thick piece of lead or
concrete.

Electromagnetic radiation emission from atomic processes can be in the x-ray energy range and nuclear in the
x-ray and gamma ray energy range.

It is believed that all radioactive atomic nuclei decay spontaneously without prior cause at a specific and steady
decay rate which differs for each radioactive isotope. Some precise measurements of half lives have been
made which show deviations of the standard type decay curves which appear to depend on non-nuclear
variable conditions in origin and structure.

Past measurements of variations in the decay constant N = Noe-with T1/2 = 0.693/are based on crude
instruments from some 70 years ago.  Later, with more sophisticated electronics, the value of of the decay of
Beryllium 7Be, was first shown in 1949 to deviate by 0.1% between atomic Be and molecular BeO. In 1965, the
of Niobium, 90Nb, is altered by 4% between the metal and the fluoride form, as discussed by G. Emery. H. C.
Dudley reported on studies that have varied decay characteristics of twelve other radionuclides according to
changes in the energy states of the orbital electrons, by reason of pressure, temperature, electric and
magnetic fields, stress in monomolecular layers and other physical atomic conditions. [10]

The alteration of decay rates by non-nuclear processes may not be truly random and would seem to require a
new theoretical model.  As these decays occur, the term nuclear may need to be expanded to include reactions
and processes involving the entire atom and even multi-atom crystal matrix forms rather than just mass-energy
changes in only the nucleus. [19, 22, 23]

observed deviations from accepted decay laws

Not too well known is a quite prodigious body of work on the persistent effects of chemical states and physical
environment on the deviation from the accepted decay law of nuclear decay rates. Theoretical as well as
experimental research has been conducted. [7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 23, 28]  In 1947, R. Daudel and E. Segré
predicted that under certain conditions a dependence of the decay constant on the chemical and physical
environment of the nucleus should be observable; subsequent to these predictions such a dependence was
experimentally observed (with R. F. Leinzinger and C. Wiegand) in the K capture decay of 7Be and the internal
conversion decay of the 99m isomeric state of Technetium.

During the decay process, the chemical environment of the nucleus is changed, thus altering the decay
constant. R. Daudel pointed out that the isomeric decay constant of the 2-keV isomeric state transition in the
Technetium isotope 99mTc arose from a change in the electron density near the nucleus. J. C. Slater
suggested that the faster decay rate observed for the RTcO4 compound form is due to a greater squeezing of
the Tc atoms with the metal Tc-Tc bond distance of 2.7 Å. Note that the symbol Å refers to the distance
measure of one Angstrom which equals 10-8 cm.

A good example of the effect of a chemical change in the nuclear environment during radioactive decay is for
the intensity change of the 122-keV E2 gamma ray observed for the 90mNb isomeric state of Niobium.  This
effect on the decay rate for the 21-second transition was an order of magnitude greater and in the opposite
direction than observed in 99mTc and was achieved at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory by J. O. Rasmussen and
his colleagues, J. A. Cooper and J M. Hollander in 1965. [27]

In 1975, Elizabeth A. Rauscher lengthened beta emissions for 20Si simply by surrounding it with specifically
designed matrix material, thereby lengthening the decay rate by about 6% with only 15 minute exposure,
demonstrating the impact of environmental conditions on radionuclides.  

natural transmutation

Natural, low-energy transmutation phenomena have been observed for centuries. In 1799, the French chemist,
Nicolas Louis Vauquelin noted that hens could excrete 500% more lime that they take in as food, suggesting a
creation -- transmutation of Calcium Carbonate. Scientific literature notes many similar phenomena that occur
in vegetation processes of plants as well where new elements and minerals inexplicably emerge. Nobel
Nominee Prof. Louis Kervran replicated these numerous findings and advanced very far the understanding of
natural, non-radioactive transmutations, acquiring in this pursuit a term for such transmutations, Kervran
reaction, while engendering solid physics support from the Institut de Physique Théorique Henri Poincaré
physicist, Olivier Costa de Beauregard. He stated in 1974 that the theory of weak neutral currents accounts for
the transmutations observed, with due respect for the physical laws of conservation.  [9, 14, 15, 16] The theory
of neutral currents gave its authors, Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1979. De Beauregard proposed the following equations for biological transmutation:

                                           n pe                    (1)

                                           p p '                    (2)

                                           p  p'+'                    (3)
   Table 1. The Olivier Costa de Beauregard equations for biochemical transmutation

These equations imply the conversion of a neutron (n) to a proton (p) by virtual exchange processes -- the
neutral currents of Weinberg.  These processes produce protons ( p and p') of different energy levels and two
neutrinos (and') of different energy levels. represents the antineutrino and e- the electron. In one state the
proton will be bound to an atomic nucleus, and in the other state, it will be relatively free in a chemical binding.  

In vitro transmutation

Physicist Dr. Andrija Puharich was able to observe and photograph Kervran reactions in vitro by using a high-
power dark-field microscope which was developed by the Canadian scientist, Gaston Naessens.  Kervran
reactions were documented by him to include the oxygen atom entering into a virtual nuclear reaction with p or
n to yield 14N or 19F, by using an electrolytic process similar to that of Prof. Yull Brown, as disclosed by
Puharich in his U.S. Patent 4,394,230, Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules. [20, 21]

There exists as well the phenomenon of transmutative "digestion". L. Magos and T. W. Clarkson of the British
Research Council Carshalton Laboratories noted disintegration of the radioactive isotope 203Hg ingested by
rats, a volatilization which they ultimately attributed to such bacteria as Klebsiella aerogenes. [17]

cold-fusion examples

On June 19, 1995, Texas A&M University hosted a low-energy transmutation Conference, sponsored by the
"father of electrochemistry", Professor Dr. John O'M Bockris. Some of the papers which were presented noted
anomalies in the formation of new elements in cathodes -- definitely not sourced from contamination -- which
were involved in cold-fusion experiments. For example: Drs. T. Ohmori and Reiko Notoya, both of Hokkaido
University, reported Iron formation in Gold and Palladium cathodes, Potassium changing into Calcium, Cs133
producing an element of mass 134, and Na23 becoming Na24; Dr. John Dash of Portland State University
reported spots of silver, cadmium and gold protruding in palladium electrodes in both light and heavy water
cells; Dr. Robert Bush of California Polytechnic, Pomona, reported strontium on the surface of nickel cathodes.
[18]

low-temperature transmutation

Very pertinent is the long-term research by Dr. Georgiy S. Rabzi of the Ukrainian International Academy of
Original Ideas who reported his analyses of the mechanism of low-temperature transmutation, which he has
conducted since 1954. He passed out samples to attendees: a steel nut which acquired the color of copper and
was reduced in size; magnetic stainless steel turned non-magnetic, asbestos which became like ceramic. No
radioactivity had been observed in any of his experiments and he is convinced that radioactive wastes can be
stabilized. [18]

These observations, originating from various domains of scientific research form a solid case of low level
advanced transmutation -- with minuscule power and signal strength and sometimes without any, i.e. in nature
alone.


Advanced transmutation: disposing of nuclear waste

Experimental results obtained by advanced transmutation have direct bearing on the problem of disposal of
nuclear wastes.

The first relies on the interaction of nuclear wastes with ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen gas known as Brown's
Gas. Brown's Gas has been developed by a Bulgarian-born Australian national, Prof. Yull Brown. In his
process, water is separated into its two constituents, hydrogen and oxygen in a way that allows them to be
mixed under pressure and then burned simultaneously and safely in a 2:1 proportion. The proprietary process
results in a gas containing ionic hydrogen and oxygen in the required proportions which can be generated
economically and safely and be compressed up to 100 psi. [2, 5, 6]

Brown's Gas is a "cornerstone of a technological edifice" with many commercial and industrial applications.  

At this time, Brown's Gas generators are mass produced in the Bautou, a major research city in the People's
Republic of China by the huge NORINCO factory which also manufacturers locomotives and ordinances -- and
services the nation's nuclear industry complex.  Most of these generators (producing up to 4,000 litres/hour/2.4
litres of water at 0.45 MPa with power requirements ranging from 0.66 kW up to 13.2 kW) are marketed for their
superior welding and brazing qualities, costing between $ 2,000 and $ 17,000. Some units have been used for
the decontamination of radioactive materials since 1991.  Brown's Gas generators produce between 300 and
340 litres of Brown's Gas per 1 kW energy DC current approximately and one litre of water produces about
1,866.6 litres of gas. A generator which produces 10,000 litres per hour has been built specifically for the
reduction of nuclear waste. Prof. Brown first successfully de-radioactivated radionuclides of Cobalt 60 in his
laboratory in Sydney, Australia with initial experimental results of about 50%. [28]

On August 24, 1991, Baotou's Nuclear Institute # 202 released a report, The results of experiments to dispose
of radiation materials by Brown's Gas which establishes that experimentation on Cobalt 60 radiation source
decreased radiation by about 50% or half-life of radiation. [4]  Sometimes more radiation is decreased, a fact  
which requires further investigation of the possibilities for decreasing more of the radiation by treatments of
single exposures to Brown's Gas flame, lasting only a few minutes, as in the samples described in the table
below.



                                           First Experiment                    Second Experiment

   Original
   Source Intensity                    580 millirads/hour                    115 - 120 millirads/hour


   After Treatment                    220 - 240 millirads/hour          42 millirads/hour

   
   Table 2. De-radioactivation of Cobalt 60 by exposure to Brown's Gas flame for less than 10 minutes.
1991           experiments conducted by Baotou Nuclear Institute # 220, People's Republic of China.



In another test conducted by Yull Brown before a public audience including U.S. Congressman Hon. Berkeley
Bedell with committee responsibilities in this area of concern, the experiment ran as follows as reported by the
press:

Using a slice of radioactive Americium ... Brown melted it together on a brick with small chunks of steel and
Aluminum ... After a couple of minutes under the flame, the molten metals sent up an instant flash in what
Brown says is the reaction that destroys the radioactivity. Before the heating and mixing with the other metals,
the Americium, made by the decay of an isotope of Plutonium, registered 16,000 curies per minute of radiation.  
Measured afterward by the [Geiger Counter], the mass of metals read less than 100 curies per minute, about
the same as the background radiation in the laboratory where Brown was working. [4]

This experiment indicated a reduction of radiation in the order of over 99% (to about 0.00625 of original level)
-- in less than 5 minutes, with minimal handling.  The improvement in the de-radioactivation process from about
50% to nearly 100% has come only with persistent research over the decades by Brown and his colleagues.  
The Brown's Gas generating units that produced such effects are not expensive -- a far cry from the multi-
million processes tabled by atomic energy agencies worldwide.  They are powered by low energy requirements
and require only small volumes of water, at most a few litres per hour as fuel. Furthermore, the training required
for operation is minimal.

The Hon. Bedell has reported, "it has been my good pleasure to witness experiments done by Prof. Yull Brown
in which it appeared to me that he significantly reduced the radioactivity in several nuclear materials.  Under the
circumstances, I believe it is very important for our federal government to completely investigate  Dr. Yull
Brown's accomplishments in this area." [11]

On August 6, 1992, almost a year after the Chinese nuclear report, Prof. Yull Brown made a special
demonstration to a team of 5 San Francisco field office observers from the United States Department of
Energy, at the request of the Hon. Berkeley Bedell.  Cobalt 60 was treated and resulted in a drop of Geiger
readings from 1,000 counts to 40 -- resulting in radioactive waste residue of about 0.04 of the original level.  
Apprehensive that somehow the radioactivity might have been dispersed into the ambient environment, the
official requested the California Department of Health Services to inspect the premises. The health services
crew found no radioactivity in the air resulting from this demonstration nor from another repeat demonstration
held for their benefit. [11]  This sequence of experiments was monitored by the Hon. Daniel Haley, the legislator
who established the forerunner New York State Energy Research and Development Agency.

Other demonstrations, measured with under more sophisticated protocol and instrumentation have been
conducted before Japanese nuclear experts, including four scientists from Toshiba and Mitsui: Cobalt 60 of
24,000 mR/hr reduced with one treatment to 12,000 mR/hr. The Japanese scientists were so excited by what
they saw that they immediately purchased a generator and air shipped it to Japan.  They sent Prof. Brown a
confidential report of some of their results. Subsequently, they tried to obtain additional Brown's Gas
generators directly from the People's Republic of China.  
Figure 1.  A Brown's Gas generator manufactured in the People's Republic of China by NORINCO

Prof. Brown, during his 27 years of studying water and its atomic structure and experimenting with the
disassociation of water into its constituent parts of hydrogen and oxygen has noted that there are many
variations of the atomic structures of the various waters dependent on the mixing of the three hydrogen
isotopes (1H - protium, 1H2 - deuterium, 1H3 - tritium) which combine into 6 combinations of hydrogen and the
6 oxygen isotopes (8O14, 8O15, 8O16, 8O17, 8O18, and 8O19) -- or practically, 36 types of water -- 18 are
stable and 18 have short life.
Accordingly, because of all of these types of water, we could be 36 types of Brown's Gas, and even more with
special modifications of the gas; at the moment only a few are under investigation. His studies have led to the
observation that the anomalous behaviour of water depends on the ability of water to modify energetics and
physicochemical properties of the various permutations of the hydrogen/oxygen isotopes. As is known the
lifetime, modes of decay and thermal neutron capture cross-sections vary significantly between these isotopes;
likewise, Brown has seen the various stages of his gas offer very different effects. He has found that he can
modulate a number of suitable mixes for his technology, thus providing an engineering tool in decontamination
of nuclear wastes. [2]


interaction with non-Hertzian energy

In the 1960's, the Canadian engineer, Wilbert Brockhouse Smith, a major player in advancing the technical
aspects of radio and television broadcasting in Canada began experimenting with Caduceus coils and noted
that this counterwinding set-up produced anomalous effects and proposed that other experimenters attempt to
follow this new area of investigation. These coils became popularly known as the "Smith Coils" and he believed
that they were producing, in summation, a "scalar" field -- a non-Hertzian phenomenon. It is now known that
similar non-Hertzian phenomena may also be obtained by mobius, and bi-filar coils which oppose their
alternating currents by virtue of their unique geometry. The resultant of all electromagnetic energy is to sum to
zero in accordance with Newton's third law, thereby orthorotating the zero-point-energy into our 3-space. [26]

A recent investigation by Dr. Glen Rein and T. A. Gagnon, assisted by Prof. Elizabeth A. Rauscher (Nuclear
Physics, University of California, Berkeley and with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, William Van Bise -- and with
some support by Professor Emeritus (Material Sciences) William A. Tiller of Stanford University -- involved a
modified Caduceus coil. [24, 26]

The 8.2 ohms coil indicated no electromagnetic fields even though powered with only 3 mA, 5 watt
amplifier/mixer. Yet, the field from this set-up was able to decrease ambient radioactivity associated with
environmental isotopes from 0.5 mR/hour to 0.0015 mR/hr -- or by 97%.
In contrast, Cobalt 60 increased its radioactivity from 150 to 250 mR/hour, in response to the non-Hertzian
energy.  Thus the same non-Hertzian energy field produced opposite effects on different radioactive isotopes.
[26]

This type of experiment, which may have been highly dependent on the a mix of waveform signaling, involving
superimposition of square waves containing specific repetition rates developed by Dynamic Engineering of
Sacramento, California, indicates that research and development can determine the fine-tuning of special non-
Hertzian procedures for the transmutation of specific isotopes.

Another non-Hertzian approach to advanced transmutation has been hypothesized by the nuclear scientist,
Tom E. Bearden and involves the use of "Whittaker scalar interferometry" directed in such a way as to directly
extract electromagnetic energy from the mass of the radioactive nuclei. [3]

In this system, the fundamental nuclear rates would be altered by way of "de-materializing" nuclei into
constituent hidden (scalar) electromagnetic Whittaker energy. E. T. Whittaker was a prominent British
mathematician who published two papers of interest in this matter: 1) a general analysis of force fields into
constituent fields -- differentiated into "undulatory", wave-disturbance propagation, longitudinal in character;
and 2) an analysis  of electrons as being characterized by two scalar potential functions. [29, 30]   His work
successfully pre-dates the experimental work of Y. Aharanov and D. Bohm who demonstrated that in the total
absence of electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real
effects of charged particle systems. Force fields are actually effects generated from potentials. [1]

The figure below shows the conceptual use of a Whittaker Interferometer in the endothermic (energy extraction,
electrostatic cooling) mode, for use in direct extraction of the electromagnetic energy constituting the
radioactive nucleus.

By exposing the atomic nucleus to an externally engineered Whittaker-structured potential with a deterministic
internal electromagnetic wave pattern, the internal structure of the mass potential may be slowly altered,
changing the targeted atomic nucleus by gradually inducing a direct alteration of its internal Whittaker
electromagnetic bi-wave composition.

Figure 2. Whittaker interferometer in endothermic mode for energy extraction from the mass potential of           
radioactive nuclei.  

A process based on this hypothesis remains proprietary, pending patent application.

____________________________________________________________________________________
This paper has been possible by the advice and help of Tom E. Bearden, John O'M Bockris, Yull Brown, Olivier
Costa de Beauregard, Hal Fox, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Glen Rein, William A. Tiller, Tom Valone, William Van
Bise.
References

1.          Aharonov, Y. and D. Bohm.  Significance of electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory.  Physical
Review, Second series. Vol. 115, Number 3., August 1, 1959. p. 485-491. [In the total absence of
electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real effects of
charged particle systems. Forced fields are actually effects generated from potentials. See: Whittaker's two
papers and research by T. E. Bearden on radioactive neutralization.]

2.          Anomalous water -- explained by Brown's Gas research. Planetary Association for Clean Energy
Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 11 - 12.

3.          Bearden, T. E.. A redefinition of the energy ansatz, leading to a fundamentally new class of nuclear
interactions. In: Proceedings of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego,
California. 1992. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. Vol. IV. p. 4.303 - 4.310.

4.          Bird, Christopher. The destruction of radioactive nuclear wastes: does Professor Yull Brown have the
solution ?  Explore !  Volume 3, Number 5. 1992. p. 3.

5.          Brown, Yull. Welding. U.S. Patent 4,014,777. March 29, 1977. ["The invention also relates to atomic
welding to which the mixture {of hydrogen and oxygen generated ion substantially stoichiometric proportions} is
passed through an arc causing disassociation of both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen and
oxygen which on recombination generate an extremely hot flame."]

6.          Brown, Yull. Arc-assisted oxy/hydrogen welding. U.S. Patent 4,081,656. March 28, 1978.

7.          Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, H. Wang, T. Tanaka and D. Schneider. Bulletin of the American
Physical Society. Volume 37, 1992. [Discusses nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and
the basis for their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

8.          Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, S. Fuelling, D. Schneider. Collision processes of molecules and
atoms. In: L. Byass, editor. Encyclopedia of applied physics. American Institute of Physics. 1993. [Discusses
nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and the basis for their interaction with
electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

9.          Costa de Beauregard, Olivier.  The expanding paradigm of the Einstein Theory.  In: Andrija Puharich,
editor. Iceland Papers. New York. Essentia Research Associates. 1979. 190 p.; p. 161-189.

10.          Dudley, H. C..  Radioactivity re-examined. CAEN Editors. April 7, 1975.  [Review of deviation of
radioactive decay rates].

11.          Haley, Daniel.  Transmutation of radioactive materials with Yull Brown's Gas -- 2500% radioactivity
reduction. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 8 -9.

12.          Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Unified theory of Alpha decay. Physical Review. Volume 169,
1968. P. 818

13.          Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Alpha decay of Po212 Pb208, , Po210 Pb206, treated by the
Unified Theory of Alpha decay. UCRL-70513, May, 1967.

14.          Kervran, C. Louis. Biological transmutations. Magalia, CA. Happiness Press. 1989. 163 p.

15.          Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation of the elements in oats: new analyses. Planetary Association for
Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 2 (3), July/August 1980. p. 4-6.

16.          Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation à faible énergie. Paris Maloine. 1972.

17.          Magos, L. and T. W. Clarkson.  Volatilization of mercury by bacteria.  British Journal of Industrial
Medicine. October, 1964. p. 294-8.

18.          Rabzi, Georgiy S.  Mechanism of low temperature transmutation. In: John O'M. Bockris. Proceedings
of Low-energy Transmutation Conference, Texas A&M University, June 19, 1995. [Available from New Energy
News, P. O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-8639; (801) 583-6232, fax: 583-2963]

19.          Rauscher, Elizabeth A. and R. Bruch. S-matrix theory of Alpha decay. [Book manuscript in progress.]  

20..          Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Successful treatment of neoplasms in mice with gaseous superoxide
anion (O2) and Ozone (O3) with rationale for effect. New York. Essentia Research Associates. [Presented to
Sixth Ozone World Congress. International Ozone Association. May 26-28, 1983. Washington.] 89 p. [Pages 5-
7 discuss numerous in vitro biological transmutation or Kervran reactions.]

21..          Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules. U.S. Patent
4,394,230. July 18, 1983.

22..          Rauscher, Elizabeth A.. Study and application of the modification of nuclear decay rates by changes
in atomic states. Tecnic Research Laboratories, Nevada. April, 1993. 28 p. [Protocol for design, test and
implementation of decay rate change effects to nuclear waste materials].

23.          Rauscher, Elizabeth A.  The properties of Plutonium and comparison to other metallic elements.
University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. February 23, 1991. [Set basis for variable decay rates
of the radioactive nuclides -- and their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

24..          Rein, Glen.  Ability of non-Hertzian energy to modulate Cobalt-60 radioactivity.  [Manuscript prepared
for Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency presentation by the Planetary Association for Clean Energy].
1 sheet. 1995.

25..          Rein, Glen.  Utilization of a cell culture bioassay for measuring quantum fields generated from a
modified Caduceus Coil.  In: Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
Boston, Massachusetts. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. August, 1991. 4 pages. [Specific details
regarding protocol and procedure used for modulation of radioactivity].

26.          Smith, Wilbert B.. The new science. Ottawa. The Planetary Association for Clean Energy. 1995. Keith
Press. 1964. 72 p.

27.          Soinski, A. J., Elizabeth A. Rauscher and J. O. Rasmussen. Alpha particle amplitude and phases in
the decay of 253Es.  Bulletin of American Physical Society. Volume 18, 1973. p.768. [Modulation of decay rate
of radionuclides by extra nuclear environmental conditions].

28.          Yull Brown's Gas. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 10 - 11.

29.          Whittaker, E. T..  On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics. Mathematische
Annalen. Vol. 57,. 1903. p. 333-355. [Demonstrates that a standing scalar potential wave can be decomposed
into a special set of directional electromagnetic waves that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave. As a
corollary, then, a set of bi-directional electromagnetic waves -- stress waves -- can be constructed to form such
a wave in space. Whittaker's wave represents a standing wave of variation in the local curvature of vacuum.]

30.          Whittaker, E. T..  On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to electrons by means of two
scalar potential functions.  Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.  Vol. 1. 1904. p. 367-72. [Shows
how to turn a standing scalar potential wave back into electromagnetic energy, even at a distance, by scalar
potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly expanding the famous Aharonov-Bohm effect, predating the
modern (Bohm) hidden variable theory of quantum potentials.  Such a procedure could be developed to
neutralize radioactive nuclei.]


Proceedings of the Second International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference
Texas A&M University - September  13-14, 1996

(C) All Rights Reserved. The following article is copyrighted by the author and is published on this web site
solely for educational purposes. The text may not be downloaded, copied or distributed without the express
consent of the author.
Also see Clean Energy Review


w determined? The Rhodes electrolyzer system delivers the maximum output from a proper amount of
potassium hydroxide (KOH). (Read the Keelynet document again.) In the States, there are two manufacturers
claiming 100% efficiency. That, dear friend, would mean an electrolyte with zero resistance, presently
impossible. They, including Yull Brown, were not aware that instruments used for such measurements must be
capable of accurately reading all power delivered harmonics. Using the wrong instruments can and does
provide readings in excess of true energy used.
Example: If electrical energy is through a converter that yields spikes occupying say 10% of the duty cycle, then
false readings can produce a miracle by showing an efficiency of 300% or more. A gross impossibility. With that
we would have, hooray, over-unity -- free energy from nothing. (Yull Brown's higher gas yields per 1kwh are no
doubt instrument errors.) The only way to determine true energy input vs BTU delivered is using a watt/hour
meter of the type seen on homes and businesses, followed by a calorimeter. They read ALL energy, not just
portions of it. The last three sentences in the previous text about the alcohol booster are almost correct.**
Instruments used in compiling the original Keelynet document were NIST calibrated. Nothing was left to chance.
I would advise you read and understand it before launching such ridiculous trivia as found here. Somehow I
touched a nerve yielding an emotional response instead of a scientific one.**
The Rhodes system is manufactured by Arizona HydroGen Manufacturing, 4225 East Madison Street, Phoenix,
AZ 85034. It has applications in welding, soldering, polishing and annealing in industrial electronics, jewelry
manufacturing, dental laboratories, glass, ceramic and plastics industries. Details: Dennis McMurray at 602-275-
4126, FAX 267-8787.'
Respectfully,
William A. Rhodes, Physicist
Oxyhyd 1 paper
Oxyhyd 2 paper


US Patent  # 4,014,777
March 29, 1977 ~ US Cl. 204/228.5
Welding
Yull Brown
Abstract --- This invention relates to welding, brazing or the like utilizing a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen
generated in substantially stoichiometric proportions in an electrolytic cell by electrolytic dissociation of water,
the mixture so generated being passed from the generator through a flash-back arrestor and thence to a
burner where the gases are ignited. The invention also relates to atomic welding in which the above mentioned
mixture is passed through an arc causing dissociation of both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen
and oxygen which on recombination generate an intensely hot flame.
Foreign Application Priority Data
Jul 20, 1973[AU] 4159/73
May 02, 1974[AU] 7418/73
Aug 03, 1973[AU] 4341/73
Current U.S. Class: 204/228.5; 204/268; 204/269; 204/270; 204/272; 429/21; 431/354
Intern'l Class:  C25B 001/02; C25B 001/04
Field of Search:  204/129,270,278,228,230,237,269,229,272,271 136/86 R 55/3,100 29/498.5 219/137
431/354 206/.7
References Cited
US Patent Documents
685,274 ~ Oct., 1901 ~ Haas ~ Cl. 204/268.
1,600,478 ~ Sep., 1926 ~ Lawaczeck ~ Cl. 204/272.
3,045,665 ~ Jul., 1962 ~ Movat ~ Cl. 204/129.
3,177,633 ~ Apr., 1965 ~ McDonald, Jr. ~ Cl. 55/3.
3,262,872 ~ Jul., 1966 ~ Rhodes, et al. ~ Cl. 204/129.
3,310,483 ~ Mar., 1967 ~ Rhodes ~ Cl. 204/129.
Description
This invention relates to welding, brazing and the like, utilizing hydrogen and oxygen, and extends to such
applications as oxy-welding, oxy-cutting, atomic welding, and welding or cutting in combination with electric arc
techniques. The invention also provides for the generation of hydrogen and oxygen for the abovementioned
applications in combination therewith or separately.
A most important application of the invention is atomic welding utilizing the properties of atomic oxygen in
combination with atomic hydrogen (for welding) or atomic oxygen separately (for cutting). This particular
application of the invention is based, among other things, on the appreciation that considerable energy is
associated with the dissociation of molecular oxygen into atomic oxygen by passing this gas through an arc,
and that this property can be usefully employed to generate temperatures even higher than those previously
attainable with, for example, an atomic hydrogen flame. The significance of the energy which can be obtained in
this way can be appreciated from the following reactions that take place, and the heat energies associated
therewith, when hydrogen and oxygen are both passed through an electric arc. Thus:
______________________________________
H.sub.2  H + H
         absorbing 101,000 cal. per gram mole
O.sub.2  O + O
         absorbing 117,000 cal. per gram mole
         total218,000 cal. per gram mole
______________________________________
On recombination of these atoms this energy is released as heat through a number of complex chemical
reactions and results in an extremely high flame temperature. Previously it would not have been considered
possible to practically pass oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen together through an arc due to the
highly explosive or inflammable nature of such gases. However in accordance with the concepts of the present
invention this is indeed both possible and practical and, as mentioned above, enables the realization of much
higher welding or cutting temperatures than hitherto obtainable by known practical means.
One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus whereby hydrogen and
oxygen can be generated quickly and conveniently for immediate use for welding, etc., without many of the
disadvantages associated with conventional gas welding practice. For example, the practice of employing
cylinders (or "bottles") of gas, usually oxygen and acetylene can have significant disadvantages, particularly for
users working remote from a supply depot and for whom there might be an appreciable delay between the
placing of an order for a delivery of gas the actual delivery. For such users, in order to ensure an adequate
supply of gas when a particular job demands it, it is often necessary to order fresh supplies in advance, even
before the supply on hand is fully used, or else risk running out of gas before a job is completed. Since bottles
of gas are generally delivered on a strictly exchange basis -- in that a used bottle must be returned in exchange
for a refilled bottle -- the practice can mean a significant waste, as far as the user is concerned, if bottles
containing useful amounts of unused gas have to be returned to the supplier.
The practice of using bottled gas also has associated with it a large number of other problems such as the
possibility of gas leaking from bottles, possibility of industrial disputes which can result in severe delays in
delivery and in supply shortages, liabilities, high purchase and storage costs, freight charges, and so on.
To illustrate some of the conditions which the consumer of bottled gas must put up with, listed below is a
summary of the "conditions of sale" which apply to the sale and distribution of bottled gas.
a. The cylinder remains the sole property of the supplier, which retains the right to exercise at any time its
proprietary powers in its discretion.
b. All cylinders and contents are forwarded at the expense and risk of the customers.
c. It is the responsibility of the customers to provide adequate labour for the loading and unloading of all
cylinders at the premises.
d. Cylinders are to be returned to the supplier as soon as empty, carriage and freight charges paid.
e. A cylinder is not `returned` until received by the supplier at its works or warehouse or by its truck and a
receipt on the suppliers form given for the same. No document purporting to be a receipt for any such cylinder
shall be valid unless it is the suppliers printed form of receipt.
f. Cylinders are not transferable and must not be used for any purpose other than as containers for the gas
sold by the supplier and must not be delivered or sent for recharging to any place other than the suppliers gas
station.
g. The customer agrees not to resell to any person or Corporation, the gas contents of the cylinders of any part
thereof.
h. Customers are held responsible for all loss or damage to cylinders from whatever cause arising from the time
of delivery until returned to the suppliers. (Customers are advised to cover the cylinders by insurance).
i. Where a customer has not returned a cylinder in good order and condition within six months from the date of
delivery, the supplier may, at its option, charge the customer with an amount not exceeding the agreed value of
the cylinder and the demurrage due in respect thereof, and such amount is payable by the customer as
liquidated damages for the detention of the cylinder. Notwithstanding the payment of such amount in respect of
any cylinder, it remains the property of the suppliers and the right of the suppliers to recover possession
thereof is not affected in any way.
j. No allowance is made on any residual gas returned in the cylinders.
k. And many other conditions varying in the different countries in the world.
Another disadvantage, which is associated with oxy-hydrogen welding arises due to the marked ability of
hydrogen to be absorbed by most metals. Thus when welding steel, for example, great care must be taken to
ensure that excess hydrogen is not present otherwise it will be absorbed in the metal to cause loss of strength
and brittleness. On the other hand, an excess of oxygen would cause burning of the metal and should thus
equally be avoided. It is most important therefore that with oxy-hydrogen welding the mixture at the burner be
adjusted to produce a neutral flame, that is, one in which there is neither excess hydrogen nor excess oxygen.
In practice it is most difficult to maintain (and virtually impossible to judge by flame colour) a neutral flame, and
for that reason oxy-hydrogen welding is not widely used despite the inherent advantages of low cost and high
heat value offered by hydrogen as a fuel.
These and other disadvantages can be overcome to a significant extent by the present invention whereby
hydrogen and oxygen fuel are generated simultaneously by electrolysis in an electrolytic cell and allowed to
freely mix therein to form a stoichiometric mixture that will burn with a neutral flame. The fuel gas can be
generated where and whenever required thereby eliminating the need for storage of bottles of gas and reliance
on regular deliveries of gas which often cannot be guaranteed.
The method of the present invention requires no diaphragms or the like to separate the hydrogen and oxygen
liberated by the electrolysis process and thereby enables considerable advantages to be realized over
conventional electrolytic production of these gases. Such diaphragms have normally been regarded as
essential for conventional electrolytic generators in order to separate the two gases that would otherwise form a
highly explosive mixture; however, it has been found, in accordance with the present invention, that the two
gases can be safely, and usefully, produced and utilized as a mixture for fuel purposes provided that suitable
safety precautions, such as the employment of a flash-back arrestor, are taken. Such safety precautions may
include, for example, the employment of a device which removes electrolyte vapour from the gas and at the
same time acts as a flash-back arrestor. In obviating the need for diaphragms or the like the present invention
enables the electrodes to be placed much closer together and avoids the high resistance associated with
diaphragms, which in turn enables a significant increase in the rate of gas production for a given size of
apparatus. In short the present invention enables the manufacture of small size equipment that is useful for a
large variety of welding and similar work and that is not prohibitively bulky for the average situation: something
which is impossible with conventional hydrogen-oxygen generating equipment.
In the development of apparatus from the basic concept of generation of hydrogen and oxygen electrolytically
in a practical manner suitable for large industrial applications on the one hand, and small domestic applications
on the other hand, a number of factors had to be taken into account, analysed and weighed one against the
other. The following is a list of some of these factors to illustrate what has been involved.
a. Endosmotic pressure to be balanced against the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid.
b. Rate of flow of electric current in relation to the area of the electrodes.
c. The prior art problem of removing the gases from anolyte and catholyte, before diffusion and before the
electrolytes are intermixed.
d. Effects of rapid changes in the rate of flow of electricity through the cell.
e. Effects of auxiliary decomposition within the anode and cathode sides of the cell.
f. The choice of the most readily ionized electrolyte of a maximum conductivity.
g. The least possible spacing between anode and cathode that can be employed.
h. A design of cell in which previously it was regarded impossible for the H.sub.2 and O.sub.2 given to become
mixed with safety, which does away with diaphragms or the like which would increase the internal resistance, in
which both hydrogen and oxygen can be mixed within the cell, and in which cells can be connected in series,
parallel, or parallel and series to suit requirements.
i. The choice of materials for the electrodes.
j. The quantity of acids or alkali to be used.
k. The shapes of cells according to purpose of the cells, and the application for which they are designed.
l. The possibility of improvement with permanent or electro-magnetically induced fields applied to the electrolytic
cells, to cause controlled separation of a quantity of the gases generated in the cells.
m. Ensuring effective circulation of electrolyte between the electrodes, with as little electrical resistance as
possible.
n. The possibility of using sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide which, in concentrations from 10% up to
30%, which has negligible corrosion action on iron or nickel electrodes, apart from producing a solution of good
conductivity.
o. The use of the cooling effect by passing of hydrogen and oxygen gases, for cooling electrolyte in the cell, for
controlling the cell temperature, preferably between 40.degree. C to 60.degree. C, at which temperature the
bonds between hydrogen and oxygen need a minimum of electrical energy to break.
g. The separation of hydrogen and oxygen from a mixture, using, possibly, a permanent magnetic field, or an
electro-magnetic field which can be controlled to obtain a desired separation between the hydrogen and
oxygen. Based on this principle, the oxygen could be substantially separated from the mixture and the
hydrogen could be absorbed by, for example, selected metals, which have high absorption affinity for hydrogen
(for example, paladium which absorbs 900 times more hydrogen from its volume). Also, using the principle of
the invention, hydrogen and oxygen can be generated in large quantities with small units and the oxygen could,
for example, be separated and used to supply hospitals, baby rooms, air conditioning systems, or for any other
application, when oxygen is required. Oxygen can, in this way, be generated much faster and more
conveniently than with conventional electrolytic generating equipment.
q. The possibility of absorbing the hydrogen or oxygen by specially selected materials in small containers and
where the absorbed gas can be extracted when desired for welding or brazing where it would be inconvenient
or impossible to do so with conventional equipment.
r. Making the welding operator entirely independent of any gas suppliers.
s. The generation of cheap gas, up to 6 to 7 times cheaper than normal gas supplies.
t. The design of equipment which gives not only professional welders, but handymen, or people who would like
to do welding at home with oxy-welding apparatus, but would do it only occasionally and could not justify the
expense associated with conventional gas supplies. Such people cannot justify paying for bottles of gas for a
single welding only (having to keep the bottles, paying rent for them to keep them up to two years, to perform
the next welding). For this reason, the welding apparatus made possible by the present invention is ideal
because it produces gases for welding at the time and in the quantity that is needed.
u. Hydrogen-oxygen welding has the advantage that it does not pollute the atmosphere as does oxy-acetylene
welding.
v. The design of electrolytic cells which are safe to use as well as convenient, which cells may incorporate their
own flash-back arrestors as a safety precaution or an equivalent means, to prevent the hazards of explosion or
fire.
w. The control of the current which passes through the cells, the temperature of the cell, which is a function of
current, the control of the separation of the gases, and the removal from the gases of electrolyte vapours. In
this regard there has been designed a special unit with preferably conical electrodes, and a flash-back
arrestor. The flash arrestor may be constituted by a pellet of porous material, or a long capilliary pipe located
between the gas generator and a burner head. The fire hazards associated with a mixture of hydrogen and
oxygen cannot be overemphasized and indeed it is probably mainly because of the recognized dangers
associated therewith that extreme lengths have been taken to separate the two gases completely until they
reach the burner. In accordance with the present invention it has been realized that, contrary to long standing
opinions, the gases can be safely mixed together even when being produced and as a result many desirable
advantages can be realized.
x. The provision of one or more safety valves adjusted to convenient pressure for releasing excessive
pressures in the cell (for example, greater than 30 p.s.i.) which may result, for example, if a current control
mechanism fails. The safety valves could be attached to an alarm, for example, to indicate a failure in the
current control mechanism or the cut-off switches, etc.
y. Porous material may conveniently be placed in the burner head, so that backfire through the burner into the
cell cannot occur.
In summary, the present invention contemplates, as an important feature thereof, a universal welding apparatus
capable of being used to perform different types of welding operations based on the utilization of hydrogen and
oxygen, making full use of the advantages which can thereby be realized, and equipment which can be made
small and portable compared with existing apparatus such as that presently used for gas welding using bulky
bottled hydrogen. To generate the fuel, in accordance with the invention a small compact electrolytic cell is
made possible in which the only raw material which has to be replenished from time to time is water and which
can be used whenever a source of electrical energy is available to supply the necessary amount of hydrogen
or hydrogen and oxygen mixture for performing atomic welding or hydrogen-oxygen flame welding. In its
simplest form, the gas generating apparatus of the present invention comprises an electrolytic cell adapted to
be connected to an energy source, optionally through a step down transformer and rectifier, and having means
for connection to a burner, preferably through a flash-back arrestor as a safety precaution.
The apparatus may be combined with a transformer as a single compact unit and for convenience the
transformer may be provided with several windings to enable it to be used for auxiliary purposes such as
battery charging, electroplating, arc welding or to provide an arc for atomic welding.
It has been found that a single electrolytic cell operating without diaphragms at several hundred amps will
generate hydrogen and oxygen at a reasonable rate for small welding and brazing work but for larger work (for
example, the welding of 10 mm steel plate) the required amperage becomes excessive (typically of the order of
900A or more) when considering the size of conductors and transformer and the problem of heat generation.
Accordingly, in one aspect of the invention these problems can be significantly reduced by arranging a plurality
of cells in series and using a much smaller current to obtain the same effective gas output. In effect the
capacity of a series of cells for a given current input is that of a single cell multiplied by the number of cells.
Alternatively the current requirement is reduced by a factor equal to the number of cells -- for a given rate of
gas production.
Even so a large number of separate cells can be excessively bulky for portable applications and in a further
aspect of the invention, therefore, the bulk can be greatly reduced by arranging the cells as a single unit in
which a number of electrodes, effectively in series, are arranged adjacent each other in a common electrolytic
chamber, the chamber being provided with a gas collection space and an outlet for connection to, for example,
gas burner means. Furthermore, only the end electrodes need be connected to an external source of electrical
energy and the arrangement as a whole can be made extremely efficient and compact. Additionally the need for
a transformer for most applications can be eliminated by such an arrangement so that the apparatus can be
designed to be electrically connected directly to a main electrical supply, through a bridge rectifier if desired. By
eliminating the need for a transformer, the gas generating equipment as a whole can be made surprisingly
compact, to be well suited for small domestic requirements as well as heavy industrial requirements.
In another important aspect of the invention, there is provided a safety device which monitors the pressure of
hydrogen and oxygen being generated and regulates the current flowing through the cell(s) to increase or
decrease the rate of gas production depending on the pressure. In one form the device comprises a chamber
containing two electrodes, at least one of which is conical, arranged in the chamber (which normally contains a
conductive liquid) and the electrodes being connectable in series with one or more electrolytic cells used for
oxygen-hydrogen production.
The pressure responsive, current regulating device can be designed as an integral part of the electrolytic cell
(s) or can be used as an attachment connectable externally and in series with the gas generating cell(s). The
device can also be designed to combine the functions of a current regulating device and a flash-back arrestor,
the latter function ensuring that a flame at the burner does not accidentally pass back through the hose lines to
the highly explosive mixture in the gas generating cell(s). The device may incorporate a total current cut-out
feature or may be used in combination with a cut-out device which fully interrupts the supply of electrical power
should the pressure in the cell(s) accidentally exceed a maximum safe value. The current regulating device may
also operate to regulate the current passing through the cells in accordance with the temperature to maintain
the temperature within a desired range.

Referring to the drawings, FIG. 1 shows schematically a single electrolytic cell 10 operating to produce a
mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, which mixture is passed through a flash-back arrestor 11 to a burner 12. The
cell 10 contains two plate electrodes 10a and 10b immersed in an electrolyte consisting of a solution of KOH in
water and connectable through terminals 13 and 14 respectively to a source of a.c. or d.c. electricity.
Preferably, d.c. is used as the electrical impedance of the cell, is much lower for d.c. than for a.c. The source of
electricity may be a transformer, typically of 300 Amps output rating, connected to the cell through a bridge
rectifier. The flash-back arrestor 11 is constituted by a water bath in which gas liberated in the cell 10 passes
through a tube 15 into the water bath 11 and thence through a tube 16 to the burner 12. The arrangement is
suitable for small welding and brazing work but becomes too bulky for very large work.

FIG. 2 illustrates in vertical cross-section an electrolytic cell 20 which requires a much lower current than the
cell illustrated in FIG. 1 for a given current input. The cell 20 comprises what is in effect a series of cells
constituted by a plurality of plate electrodes immersed in a solution of KOH in water. For convenience the
electrodes are designated as 20a for the two electrodes at the ends and 20b for the intermediate electrodes.
The electrodes 20a are connected, via conductors 21 to terminals 22 for connection to an external supply of
electricity. The mixture of hydrogen and oxygen which is evolved at the electrodes when an electric current is
applied, passes through an outlet opening 23 to a flash-back arrestor and thence to a burner (not shown in
FIG. 2). The series of electrodes 20a and 20b are sealingly mounted in a tube 24 of insulating material which is
provided with restricted apertures 24a at the top and 24b at the bottom, between each pair of electrodes. The
apertures 24a permit gas to escape into the space 25 above the surface of the electrolyte and the apertures
24b permit electrolyte to enter freely into the spaces between each pair of electrodes. By virtue of this
arrangement the electrical resistance between any two adjacent electrodes is far less than that between non-
adjacent electrodes so that the arrangement is effectively one of a large number of individual cells connected in
series. A very compact arrangement is therefore obtained but one which permits a relatively high gas
production rate for a reasonably low current input. For example, a structure like that shown, consisting of the
equivalent of, for example, 120 cells can generate gas at a current input of 15A (at, for example, 240V) equal to
that of a single cell requiring a current input of approximately 1800A. This means in practice that a relatively
portable apparatus can be produced which can be connected directly, without a transformer, to most domestic
electrical supplies and which can maintain a sufficient rate of gas production for most types of welding work.
An advantage which particularly distinguishes the arrangements disclosed from conventional gas welding
apparatus is that the hydrogen and oxygen are automatically produced in substantially the correct proportions
to give a neutral flame. No mixing valves are required and even unskilled personnel can produce satisfactory
welds without difficulty. In fact indications are that many welds can be produced better than by any other
welding process.

FIG. 3 illustrates a pressure responsive safety device 30 operably connected in series (electrically) with an
electrolytic hydrogen-oxygen cell 31 for regulating the current passing therethrough in accordance with the gas
pressure being generated. The device, or cell 30 comprises a chamber 30' in communication with a reservoir
32 via a passage 33. Two conical electrodes 34 and 35 are mounted in spaced relation within the chamber and
connected in series between a d.c. source (not shown) and the electrolytic cell 31. An electrolytic solution of
KOH and water is provided within the chamber, portion of which enters the reservoir 32. When the cell 31 is
operating to produce hydrogen and oxygen the pressure of the gas being produced acts on the surface of the
electrolyte in the chamber 30' to displace an amount of the electrolyte into the reservoir 32 against back
pressure exerted by air trapped in the reservoir, the amount of electrolyte displaced depending on the pressure
of the gas in the chamber 30'. At the same time the area of contact between the electrodes and the electrolyte
in the cell 30 reduces in proportion to the drop in electrolyte level, causing the electrical resistance of the cell
30 to rise and the current passing therethrough to fall. Should the gas pressure drop the electrolyte level in the
cell 30 will rise and the current passing into the cell 31 will also rise. Thus the cell 30 operates to regulate the
rate of gas production in accordance with the pressure produced and prevents excess gas pressure to build up
in the cell 31.

FIG. 4 illustrates an alternative form of safety device which is operable to make or break the connection
between an electrolytic hydrogen-oxygen cell (not shown in FIG. 4) and an electric current source. The device
comprises a cylindrical container 40 in fluid communication with a liquid reservoir 41 via a passageway 42, and
a quantity of mercury 42' contained in the container and reservoir. Two electrodes 43 and 44 are disposed one
above the other in the container 40 and are normally immersed in the mercury with a conductive path thereby
formed between them. The container is connected electrically in series with an electrolytic cell (or cells) and in
gaseous communication therewith through a hose 45. An increase in gas pressure resulting from generation of
gases by the electrolytic cell(s) causes the mercury to be displaced towards the reservoir and the mercury level
in the container 40 to fall. When the pressure exceeds a predetermined level the mercury level falls below that
of the electrode 43 and electrical connection between the two electrodes is broken. The electrical connection is
again restored when the gas pressure falls. A non-inflammable liquid, such as silicone oil or freon is provided
on top of the mercury to ensure that any arc which may be generated between the electrode 43 and the
mercury is totally isolated from the gases above the liquids.

FIG. 5 shows schematically an arrangement whereby an exceedingly hot flame can be produced using the
gaseous mixture generated electrolytically by the apparatus previously described. In this arrangement a mixture
of hydrogen and oxygen, preferably in stoichiometrical proportion, is passed via a line 50 between a pair of
tungsten electrodes 51 to produce molecular dissociation of the hydrogen and the oxygen and a very hot flame
52. It can be appreciated that whereas in an atomic hydrogen flame a significant temperature rise is obtained
by striking an arc in the hydrogen, an even greater temperature rise can be realized by striking the arc between
the oxygen as well since the dissociation energy of molecular oxygen is of the same order of magnitude as that
of molecular hydrogen.

FIG. 6 illustrates an arrangement for the magnetic separation of oxygen from a mixture of oxygen and
hydrogen, whereby the oxygen can be used for flame cutting. The apparatus consists of a chamber 60
containing a magnet 61 and is located in a conduit 62. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen is passed through the
conduit and around the magnet 61. The diamagnetic oxygen is diverted by the magnetic field into a transverse
passageway 63 to a central conduit (not shown) leading from this passageway and thence to a flame-cutting
head. The paramagnetic hydrogen continues along the conduit, past the magnet and can be allowed to escape
or can be collected, as desired. If the magnet is an electromagnet it can be turned off when hydrogen and
oxygen is required as a mixture, and in that case the downstream side of the conduit 62 can be closed off to
prevent the loss of gas.

FIG. 7 illustrates a complete oxy-hydrogen generator and welding apparatus comprising a gas generator 70, a
current regulating cell 71 and a power supply 72. The construction of the electrodes 73 of the generator 70
and 74 of the cell 71 are identical with those illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3 respectively. In this arrangement,
however, the gas generator 70 and cell 71 are combined as an integrated unit and as such has some features
not found in the arrangements shown in FIGS. 2 and 3. In particular the chamber 75 of the generator 70 and
the chamber 76 of the current regulator cell 71 are separated by two partitions 77 and 78 defining between
them a passageway communicating between the two chambers. The respective electrodes of the cell 71 and a
generator 70 are connected electrically in series with the power supply.
Gas produced by electrolysis in the chamber 75 rises into the space in the chamber above the electrodes 73,
passes down the passageway between the partitions 77 and 78, bubbles through the electrolyte in the chamber
76 and thence passes through an outlet opening 79 to a burner 80. An air trap reservoir 81 is formed integrally
with the cell 71 and is in liquid communication therewith through an opening between the bottom of the
reservoir and the cell. When the pressure of the gas generated by the generator 70 rises, this pressure causes
the electrolyte in the chamber 76 to be displaced into the reservoir 81 resulting in a reduction of the current
being passed to the generator 70 by the mechanism previously described in relation to FIG. 3 of the drawings.
In this way the cell 71 effectively monitors the gas pressure and regulates the current to maintain an
approximately constant pressure. To ensure against the possibility that the pressure should accidentally
exceed a predetermined maximum safe value, a spring-loaded safety pressure valve 82 is provided at the top
of the reservoir 81 to release the excess pressure into the atmosphere.
The burner 80 is provided with a flash-back arrestor in the form of a porous ceramic pellet 83 located in the gas
flow path between the handle part 84 of the burner and the burner tip 85. The flash-back arrestor acts by
quenching any flame blowing back into the burner before the flame has a chance to reach the hose 86
connecting the burner with the gas generator.
The power supply is of the universal type, that is, it is provided with a transformer 87 connectable to an
alternating current electrical supply and provided with a number of electrical outlets for various purposes. One
winding of the transformer is connected to a bridge rectifier which provides the d.c. current for the gas
generator. Another winding is used for arc welding or can be used to supply an arc for atomic oxy-hydrogen
welding. It will be appreciated that the transformer is optional and that the generator can be connected directly
to the mains. In fact the bridge rectifier is not essential either and can be omitted if desired.
In the operation of apparatus of the type described it is often required to conveniently change between neutral
and oxidizing flames, for example when changing from a welding operation to a cutting operation and the
present invention makes provision for the variation of these functions. Briefly, in accordance with the present
invention, apparatus for either oxy-hydrogen welding or cutting may comprise a first electrolytic generator for
generating hydrogen and oxygen by the electrolysis of water in substantially stoichiometric proportions to
produce a neutral flame and a further electrolytic generator from which hydrogen and oxygen are separately
delivered, which means for adding either the hydrogen from this further cell, or the oxygen from the further
generator to the gas mixture obtained from the first generator. This arrangement results in a most efficient
combination of functions when a neutral flame or other is required. The hydrogen gas produced by the further
generator, when added to the flame mixture, burns with atmospheric oxygen thereby producing a reducing
flame. When an oxidizing flame is required, the additional hydrogen is cut off and the oxygen produced by the
further generator is added to the flame mixture. It will be appreciated that various designs can be employed for
either generator, for example, they may be completely independent or they may share a common electrolyte.
The further gas generator can also, in practice, be made somewhat smaller than the other generator since it
does not have to produce the bulk of the gas required.
It has been found that welding with hydrogen and oxygen in an exact 2 to 1 ratio (as when the gases are
produced electrolytically) results in a particularly clean, oxide free welded surface and a strong welded joint.
For the same quality welding to be produced by conventional gas welding technique substantially greater skill is
required and, in the case of conventional hydrogen welding, for example, good welded joints are obtained only
with great difficulty due to the extreme difficulty in obtaining and maintaining a neutral flame. With the method of
the present invention there is no difficulty in obtaining a neutral flame, and hence the ease with which high
quality welds can be obtained.
Finally, it can sometimes be convenient to store hydrogen and/or oxygen, generated electrolytically in a
specially designed container, or to slowly accumulate these gases and then, when required, using the
accumulated stored gas for extra heavy work for a short time. It is quite hazardous to pressurize a mixture of
hydrogen and oxygen under very high pressures, of course, but it is possible, in accordance with one aspect of
the invention, to store a useful amount of gas in a relatively small volume at low pressures and this can be done
by using a highly gas absorbent metal in the storage container. The metal palladium, for example, can absorb
up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen and can be used with advantage for this application. In fact useful
amounts of hydrogen, for small scale brazing work can readily be stored in a small hand held container,
containing a gas absorbent material.
Advanced transmutation processes
and their application for the decontamination of radioactive nuclear wastes

A. Michrowski
President, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Inc.



Abstract:
There are deviations to the standard model of radioactive atomic nuclei decay reported in the literature. These
include persistent effects of chemical states and physical environment and the natural, low-energy
transmutation phenomena associated with the vegetation processes of plants. The theory of neutral currents is
proposed by Nobelist O. Costa de Beauregard to account for the observed natural transmutations, also known
as the Kervran reaction. "Cold fusion" researchers have also reported anomalies in the formation of new
elements in cathodes. This body of knowledge provides the rationale for the observed and successful and
developed advanced transmutation processes for the disposal of nuclear waste developed by Yull Brown
involving a gas developed by him with a stoichiometric mixture of ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen compressed
up to 100 psi. Another procedure, still in experimental stages, involves the environmental interaction of non-
Hertzian electromagnetic fields and targeted radioactive samples. In both methods, the radioactivity in samples
decreases by up to 97%  rapidly and at low cost.

Since the discovery of natural radioactivity, it was generally believed that radioactive processes obeyed orderly,
simple decay rate formulae and that nuclear processes operated completely independent of extra nuclear
phenomena such as the chemical state of the system or physical parameters such as pressure or temperature.
A solid body of scientific literature describes a small percentage variation of the order of 0.1 to 5% in the decay
constant under a variety of chemical and physical conditions. [7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 23, 28]

The standard definition of half-life or half-decay time is the time taken by a given amount of a particular
radioactive substance to undergo disintegration or decay of half of its atoms.  Measured half-lives vary from
less than a millionth of a second to billions of years in the case of Uranium. There are four modes of decay,
three are named after the first three letters of the Greek alphabet, i.e., alpha, beta and gamma and the fourth
is the recently discovered proton decay.

Current model of decay
By way of review, for the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, the nucleus is composed of the heavy particles or
hadron or the proton and the neutron, and is surrounded by a cloud of electrons (or light particles or leptons)
the number of which depends on the atomic number (for neutral atoms) and also the valence state (for ionized
atoms). Alpha particles are Helium nuclei, 4He2 consisting of two protons and 2 neutrons; beta particles are
electrons (negative charge) and positrons (positive charge) and gamma rays which are in the short wave length
of the electromagnetic radiation band; the proton is a hadron. Alpha particles and protons are strongly
interacting particles as are all hadrons.

The current model of beta decay is that an inter nucleon neutron spontaneously decays into a proton and an
electron (or beta particle and an anti-electron neutrino, no p. + e. + c.  A neutrino is a zero-rest mass spin 1/2
particle which conserves momentum in the decay process. There are many pure beta emitters throughout the
periodic table; Carbon 14C and deuterium are two examples. Beta particles penetrate substance less deeply
than gamma radiation but are hundreds of times more penetrating than alpha particles.  Beta particles can be
stopped by an inch of wood or by a thin sheet of aluminum foil, for example. The energy of most emitted alpha
particles are stopped by a piece of paper and the most energetic gamma rays require a thick piece of lead or
concrete.

Electromagnetic radiation emission from atomic processes can be in the x-ray energy range and nuclear in the
x-ray and gamma ray energy range.

It is believed that all radioactive atomic nuclei decay spontaneously without prior cause at a specific and steady
decay rate which differs for each radioactive isotope. Some precise measurements of half lives have been
made which show deviations of the standard type decay curves which appear to depend on non-nuclear
variable conditions in origin and structure.

Past measurements of variations in the decay constant N = Noe-with T1/2 = 0.693/are based on crude
instruments from some 70 years ago.  Later, with more sophisticated electronics, the value of of the decay of
Beryllium 7Be, was first shown in 1949 to deviate by 0.1% between atomic Be and molecular BeO. In 1965, the
of Niobium, 90Nb, is altered by 4% between the metal and the fluoride form, as discussed by G. Emery. H. C.
Dudley reported on studies that have varied decay characteristics of twelve other radionuclides according to
changes in the energy states of the orbital electrons, by reason of pressure, temperature, electric and
magnetic fields, stress in monomolecular layers and other physical atomic conditions. [10]

The alteration of decay rates by non-nuclear processes may not be truly random and would seem to require a
new theoretical model.  As these decays occur, the term nuclear may need to be expanded to include reactions
and processes involving the entire atom and even multi-atom crystal matrix forms rather than just mass-energy
changes in only the nucleus. [19, 22, 23]

observed deviations from accepted decay laws

Not too well known is a quite prodigious body of work on the persistent effects of chemical states and physical
environment on the deviation from the accepted decay law of nuclear decay rates. Theoretical as well as
experimental research has been conducted. [7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 23, 28]  In 1947, R. Daudel and E. Segré
predicted that under certain conditions a dependence of the decay constant on the chemical and physical
environment of the nucleus should be observable; subsequent to these predictions such a dependence was
experimentally observed (with R. F. Leinzinger and C. Wiegand) in the K capture decay of 7Be and the internal
conversion decay of the 99m isomeric state of Technetium.

During the decay process, the chemical environment of the nucleus is changed, thus altering the decay
constant. R. Daudel pointed out that the isomeric decay constant of the 2-keV isomeric state transition in the
Technetium isotope 99mTc arose from a change in the electron density near the nucleus. J. C. Slater
suggested that the faster decay rate observed for the RTcO4 compound form is due to a greater squeezing of
the Tc atoms with the metal Tc-Tc bond distance of 2.7 Å. Note that the symbol Å refers to the distance
measure of one Angstrom which equals 10-8 cm.

A good example of the effect of a chemical change in the nuclear environment during radioactive decay is for
the intensity change of the 122-keV E2 gamma ray observed for the 90mNb isomeric state of Niobium.  This
effect on the decay rate for the 21-second transition was an order of magnitude greater and in the opposite
direction than observed in 99mTc and was achieved at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory by J. O. Rasmussen and
his colleagues, J. A. Cooper and J M. Hollander in 1965. [27]

In 1975, Elizabeth A. Rauscher lengthened beta emissions for 20Si simply by surrounding it with specifically
designed matrix material, thereby lengthening the decay rate by about 6% with only 15 minute exposure,
demonstrating the impact of environmental conditions on radionuclides.  

natural transmutation

Natural, low-energy transmutation phenomena have been observed for centuries. In 1799, the French chemist,
Nicolas Louis Vauquelin noted that hens could excrete 500% more lime that they take in as food, suggesting a
creation -- transmutation of Calcium Carbonate. Scientific literature notes many similar phenomena that occur
in vegetation processes of plants as well where new elements and minerals inexplicably emerge. Nobel
Nominee Prof. Louis Kervran replicated these numerous findings and advanced very far the understanding of
natural, non-radioactive transmutations, acquiring in this pursuit a term for such transmutations, Kervran
reaction, while engendering solid physics support from the Institut de Physique Théorique Henri Poincaré
physicist, Olivier Costa de Beauregard. He stated in 1974 that the theory of weak neutral currents accounts for
the transmutations observed, with due respect for the physical laws of conservation.  [9, 14, 15, 16] The theory
of neutral currents gave its authors, Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1979. De Beauregard proposed the following equations for biological transmutation:

                                           n pe                    (1)

                                           p p '                    (2)

                                           p  p'+'                    (3)
   Table 1. The Olivier Costa de Beauregard equations for biochemical transmutation

These equations imply the conversion of a neutron (n) to a proton (p) by virtual exchange processes -- the
neutral currents of Weinberg.  These processes produce protons ( p and p') of different energy levels and two
neutrinos (and') of different energy levels. represents the antineutrino and e- the electron. In one state the
proton will be bound to an atomic nucleus, and in the other state, it will be relatively free in a chemical binding.  

In vitro transmutation

Physicist Dr. Andrija Puharich was able to observe and photograph Kervran reactions in vitro by using a high-
power dark-field microscope which was developed by the Canadian scientist, Gaston Naessens.  Kervran
reactions were documented by him to include the oxygen atom entering into a virtual nuclear reaction with p or
n to yield 14N or 19F, by using an electrolytic process similar to that of Prof. Yull Brown, as disclosed by
Puharich in his U.S. Patent 4,394,230, Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules. [20, 21]

There exists as well the phenomenon of transmutative "digestion". L. Magos and T. W. Clarkson of the British
Research Council Carshalton Laboratories noted disintegration of the radioactive isotope 203Hg ingested by
rats, a volatilization which they ultimately attributed to such bacteria as Klebsiella aerogenes. [17]

cold-fusion examples

On June 19, 1995, Texas A&M University hosted a low-energy transmutation Conference, sponsored by the
"father of electrochemistry", Professor Dr. John O'M Bockris. Some of the papers which were presented noted
anomalies in the formation of new elements in cathodes -- definitely not sourced from contamination -- which
were involved in cold-fusion experiments. For example: Drs. T. Ohmori and Reiko Notoya, both of Hokkaido
University, reported Iron formation in Gold and Palladium cathodes, Potassium changing into Calcium, Cs133
producing an element of mass 134, and Na23 becoming Na24; Dr. John Dash of Portland State University
reported spots of silver, cadmium and gold protruding in palladium electrodes in both light and heavy water
cells; Dr. Robert Bush of California Polytechnic, Pomona, reported strontium on the surface of nickel cathodes.
[18]

low-temperature transmutation

Very pertinent is the long-term research by Dr. Georgiy S. Rabzi of the Ukrainian International Academy of
Original Ideas who reported his analyses of the mechanism of low-temperature transmutation, which he has
conducted since 1954. He passed out samples to attendees: a steel nut which acquired the color of copper and
was reduced in size; magnetic stainless steel turned non-magnetic, asbestos which became like ceramic. No
radioactivity had been observed in any of his experiments and he is convinced that radioactive wastes can be
stabilized. [18]

These observations, originating from various domains of scientific research form a solid case of low level
advanced transmutation -- with minuscule power and signal strength and sometimes without any, i.e. in nature
alone.


Advanced transmutation: disposing of nuclear waste

Experimental results obtained by advanced transmutation have direct bearing on the problem of disposal of
nuclear wastes.

The first relies on the interaction of nuclear wastes with ionic hydrogen and ionic oxygen gas known as Brown's
Gas. Brown's Gas has been developed by a Bulgarian-born Australian national, Prof. Yull Brown. In his
process, water is separated into its two constituents, hydrogen and oxygen in a way that allows them to be
mixed under pressure and then burned simultaneously and safely in a 2:1 proportion. The proprietary process
results in a gas containing ionic hydrogen and oxygen in the required proportions which can be generated
economically and safely and be compressed up to 100 psi. [2, 5, 6]

Brown's Gas is a "cornerstone of a technological edifice" with many commercial and industrial applications.  

At this time, Brown's Gas generators are mass produced in the Bautou, a major research city in the People's
Republic of China by the huge NORINCO factory which also manufacturers locomotives and ordinances -- and
services the nation's nuclear industry complex.  Most of these generators (producing up to 4,000 litres/hour/2.4
litres of water at 0.45 MPa with power requirements ranging from 0.66 kW up to 13.2 kW) are marketed for their
superior welding and brazing qualities, costing between $ 2,000 and $ 17,000. Some units have been used for
the decontamination of radioactive materials since 1991.  Brown's Gas generators produce between 300 and
340 litres of Brown's Gas per 1 kW energy DC current approximately and one litre of water produces about
1,866.6 litres of gas. A generator which produces 10,000 litres per hour has been built specifically for the
reduction of nuclear waste. Prof. Brown first successfully de-radioactivated radionuclides of Cobalt 60 in his
laboratory in Sydney, Australia with initial experimental results of about 50%. [28]

On August 24, 1991, Baotou's Nuclear Institute # 202 released a report, The results of experiments to dispose
of radiation materials by Brown's Gas which establishes that experimentation on Cobalt 60 radiation source
decreased radiation by about 50% or half-life of radiation. [4]  Sometimes more radiation is decreased, a fact  
which requires further investigation of the possibilities for decreasing more of the radiation by treatments of
single exposures to Brown's Gas flame, lasting only a few minutes, as in the samples described in the table
below.



                                           First Experiment                    Second Experiment

   Original
   Source Intensity                    580 millirads/hour                    115 - 120 millirads/hour


   After Treatment                    220 - 240 millirads/hour          42 millirads/hour

   
   Table 2. De-radioactivation of Cobalt 60 by exposure to Brown's Gas flame for less than 10 minutes.
1991           experiments conducted by Baotou Nuclear Institute # 220, People's Republic of China.



In another test conducted by Yull Brown before a public audience including U.S. Congressman Hon. Berkeley
Bedell with committee responsibilities in this area of concern, the experiment ran as follows as reported by the
press:

Using a slice of radioactive Americium ... Brown melted it together on a brick with small chunks of steel and
Aluminum ... After a couple of minutes under the flame, the molten metals sent up an instant flash in what
Brown says is the reaction that destroys the radioactivity. Before the heating and mixing with the other metals,
the Americium, made by the decay of an isotope of Plutonium, registered 16,000 curies per minute of radiation.  
Measured afterward by the [Geiger Counter], the mass of metals read less than 100 curies per minute, about
the same as the background radiation in the laboratory where Brown was working. [4]

This experiment indicated a reduction of radiation in the order of over 99% (to about 0.00625 of original level)
-- in less than 5 minutes, with minimal handling.  The improvement in the de-radioactivation process from about
50% to nearly 100% has come only with persistent research over the decades by Brown and his colleagues.  
The Brown's Gas generating units that produced such effects are not expensive -- a far cry from the multi-
million processes tabled by atomic energy agencies worldwide.  They are powered by low energy requirements
and require only small volumes of water, at most a few litres per hour as fuel. Furthermore, the training required
for operation is minimal.

The Hon. Bedell has reported, "it has been my good pleasure to witness experiments done by Prof. Yull Brown
in which it appeared to me that he significantly reduced the radioactivity in several nuclear materials.  Under the
circumstances, I believe it is very important for our federal government to completely investigate  Dr. Yull
Brown's accomplishments in this area." [11]

On August 6, 1992, almost a year after the Chinese nuclear report, Prof. Yull Brown made a special
demonstration to a team of 5 San Francisco field office observers from the United States Department of
Energy, at the request of the Hon. Berkeley Bedell.  Cobalt 60 was treated and resulted in a drop of Geiger
readings from 1,000 counts to 40 -- resulting in radioactive waste residue of about 0.04 of the original level.  
Apprehensive that somehow the radioactivity might have been dispersed into the ambient environment, the
official requested the California Department of Health Services to inspect the premises. The health services
crew found no radioactivity in the air resulting from this demonstration nor from another repeat demonstration
held for their benefit. [11]  This sequence of experiments was monitored by the Hon. Daniel Haley, the legislator
who established the forerunner New York State Energy Research and Development Agency.

Other demonstrations, measured with under more sophisticated protocol and instrumentation have been
conducted before Japanese nuclear experts, including four scientists from Toshiba and Mitsui: Cobalt 60 of
24,000 mR/hr reduced with one treatment to 12,000 mR/hr. The Japanese scientists were so excited by what
they saw that they immediately purchased a generator and air shipped it to Japan.  They sent Prof. Brown a
confidential report of some of their results. Subsequently, they tried to obtain additional Brown's Gas
generators directly from the People's Republic of China.  

   Figure 1.  A Brown's Gas generator manufactured in the People's Republic of China by NORINCO

Prof. Brown, during his 27 years of studying water and its atomic structure and experimenting with the
disassociation of water into its constituent parts of hydrogen and oxygen has noted that there are many
variations of the atomic structures of the various waters dependent on the mixing of the three hydrogen
isotopes (1H - protium, 1H2 - deuterium, 1H3 - tritium) which combine into 6 combinations of hydrogen and the
6 oxygen isotopes (8O14, 8O15, 8O16, 8O17, 8O18, and 8O19) -- or practically, 36 types of water -- 18 are
stable and 18 have short life.
Accordingly, because of all of these types of water, we could be 36 types of Brown's Gas, and even more with
special modifications of the gas; at the moment only a few are under investigation. His studies have led to the
observation that the anomalous behaviour of water depends on the ability of water to modify energetics and
physicochemical properties of the various permutations of the hydrogen/oxygen isotopes. As is known the
lifetime, modes of decay and thermal neutron capture cross-sections vary significantly between these isotopes;
likewise, Brown has seen the various stages of his gas offer very different effects. He has found that he can
modulate a number of suitable mixes for his technology, thus providing an engineering tool in decontamination
of nuclear wastes. [2]


interaction with non-Hertzian energy

In the 1960's, the Canadian engineer, Wilbert Brockhouse Smith, a major player in advancing the technical
aspects of radio and television broadcasting in Canada began experimenting with Caduceus coils and noted
that this counterwinding set-up produced anomalous effects and proposed that other experimenters attempt to
follow this new area of investigation. These coils became popularly known as the "Smith Coils" and he believed
that they were producing, in summation, a "scalar" field -- a non-Hertzian phenomenon. It is now known that
similar non-Hertzian phenomena may also be obtained by mobius, and bi-filar coils which oppose their
alternating currents by virtue of their unique geometry. The resultant of all electromagnetic energy is to sum to
zero in accordance with Newton's third law, thereby orthorotating the zero-point-energy into our 3-space. [26]

A recent investigation by Dr. Glen Rein and T. A. Gagnon, assisted by Prof. Elizabeth A. Rauscher (Nuclear
Physics, University of California, Berkeley and with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, William Van Bise -- and with
some support by Professor Emeritus (Material Sciences) William A. Tiller of Stanford University -- involved a
modified Caduceus coil. [24, 26]

The 8.2 ohms coil indicated no electromagnetic fields even though powered with only 3 mA, 5 watt
amplifier/mixer. Yet, the field from this set-up was able to decrease ambient radioactivity associated with
environmental isotopes from 0.5 mR/hour to 0.0015 mR/hr -- or by 97%.
In contrast, Cobalt 60 increased its radioactivity from 150 to 250 mR/hour, in response to the non-Hertzian
energy.  Thus the same non-Hertzian energy field produced opposite effects on different radioactive isotopes.
[26]

This type of experiment, which may have been highly dependent on the a mix of waveform signaling, involving
superimposition of square waves containing specific repetition rates developed by Dynamic Engineering of
Sacramento, California, indicates that research and development can determine the fine-tuning of special non-
Hertzian procedures for the transmutation of specific isotopes.

Another non-Hertzian approach to advanced transmutation has been hypothesized by the nuclear scientist,
Tom E. Bearden and involves the use of "Whittaker scalar interferometry" directed in such a way as to directly
extract electromagnetic energy from the mass of the radioactive nuclei. [3]

In this system, the fundamental nuclear rates would be altered by way of "de-materializing" nuclei into
constituent hidden (scalar) electromagnetic Whittaker energy. E. T. Whittaker was a prominent British
mathematician who published two papers of interest in this matter: 1) a general analysis of force fields into
constituent fields -- differentiated into "undulatory", wave-disturbance propagation, longitudinal in character;
and 2) an analysis  of electrons as being characterized by two scalar potential functions. [29, 30]   His work
successfully pre-dates the experimental work of Y. Aharanov and D. Bohm who demonstrated that in the total
absence of electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real
effects of charged particle systems. Force fields are actually effects generated from potentials. [1]

The figure below shows the conceptual use of a Whittaker Interferometer in the endothermic (energy extraction,
electrostatic cooling) mode, for use in direct extraction of the electromagnetic energy constituting the
radioactive nucleus.

By exposing the atomic nucleus to an externally engineered Whittaker-structured potential with a deterministic
internal electromagnetic wave pattern, the internal structure of the mass potential may be slowly altered,
changing the targeted atomic nucleus by gradually inducing a direct alteration of its internal Whittaker
electromagnetic bi-wave composition.

   Figure 2. Whittaker interferometer in endothermic mode for energy extraction from the mass potential
of           radioactive nuclei.  

A process based on this hypothesis remains proprietary, pending patent application.

____________________________________________________________________________________
This paper has been possible by the advice and help of Tom E. Bearden, John O'M Bockris, Yull Brown, Olivier
Costa de Beauregard, Hal Fox, Elizabeth A. Rauscher, Glen Rein, William A. Tiller, Tom Valone, William Van
Bise.
References

1.          Aharonov, Y. and D. Bohm.  Significance of electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory.  Physical
Review, Second series. Vol. 115, Number 3., August 1, 1959. p. 485-491. [In the total absence of
electromagnetic force fields, the potentials remain and can interfere at a distance to produce real effects of
charged particle systems. Forced fields are actually effects generated from potentials. See: Whittaker's two
papers and research by T. E. Bearden on radioactive neutralization.]

2.          Anomalous water -- explained by Brown's Gas research. Planetary Association for Clean Energy
Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 11 - 12.

3.          Bearden, T. E.. A redefinition of the energy ansatz, leading to a fundamentally new class of nuclear
interactions. In: Proceedings of the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego,
California. 1992. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. Vol. IV. p. 4.303 - 4.310.

4.          Bird, Christopher. The destruction of radioactive nuclear wastes: does Professor Yull Brown have the
solution ?  Explore !  Volume 3, Number 5. 1992. p. 3.

5.          Brown, Yull. Welding. U.S. Patent 4,014,777. March 29, 1977. ["The invention also relates to atomic
welding to which the mixture {of hydrogen and oxygen generated ion substantially stoichiometric proportions} is
passed through an arc causing disassociation of both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen and
oxygen which on recombination generate an extremely hot flame."]

6.          Brown, Yull. Arc-assisted oxy/hydrogen welding. U.S. Patent 4,081,656. March 28, 1978.

7.          Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, H. Wang, T. Tanaka and D. Schneider. Bulletin of the American
Physical Society. Volume 37, 1992. [Discusses nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and
the basis for their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

8.          Bruch, R., Elizabeth A. Rauscher, S. Fuelling, D. Schneider. Collision processes of molecules and
atoms. In: L. Byass, editor. Encyclopedia of applied physics. American Institute of Physics. 1993. [Discusses
nature of variable decay rates of the radioactive nuclides, and the basis for their interaction with
electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

9.          Costa de Beauregard, Olivier.  The expanding paradigm of the Einstein Theory.  In: Andrija Puharich,
editor. Iceland Papers. New York. Essentia Research Associates. 1979. 190 p.; p. 161-189.

10.          Dudley, H. C..  Radioactivity re-examined. CAEN Editors. April 7, 1975.  [Review of deviation of
radioactive decay rates].

11.          Haley, Daniel.  Transmutation of radioactive materials with Yull Brown's Gas -- 2500% radioactivity
reduction. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 8 -9.

12.          Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Unified theory of Alpha decay. Physical Review. Volume 169,
1968. P. 818

13.          Harada, K. and Elizabeth A. Rauscher. Alpha decay of Po212 Pb208, , Po210 Pb206, treated by the
Unified Theory of Alpha decay. UCRL-70513, May, 1967.

14.          Kervran, C. Louis. Biological transmutations. Magalia, CA. Happiness Press. 1989. 163 p.

15.          Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation of the elements in oats: new analyses. Planetary Association for
Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 2 (3), July/August 1980. p. 4-6.

16.          Kervran, C. Louis. Transmutation à faible énergie. Paris Maloine. 1972.

17.          Magos, L. and T. W. Clarkson.  Volatilization of mercury by bacteria.  British Journal of Industrial
Medicine. October, 1964. p. 294-8.

18.          Rabzi, Georgiy S.  Mechanism of low temperature transmutation. In: John O'M. Bockris. Proceedings
of Low-energy Transmutation Conference, Texas A&M University, June 19, 1995. [Available from New Energy
News, P. O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-8639; (801) 583-6232, fax: 583-2963]

19.          Rauscher, Elizabeth A. and R. Bruch. S-matrix theory of Alpha decay. [Book manuscript in progress.]  

20..          Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Successful treatment of neoplasms in mice with gaseous superoxide
anion (O2) and Ozone (O3) with rationale for effect. New York. Essentia Research Associates. [Presented to
Sixth Ozone World Congress. International Ozone Association. May 26-28, 1983. Washington.] 89 p. [Pages 5-
7 discuss numerous in vitro biological transmutation or Kervran reactions.]

21..          Puharich, Andrija [Henry K.]. Method and apparatus for splitting water molecules. U.S. Patent
4,394,230. July 18, 1983.

22..          Rauscher, Elizabeth A.. Study and application of the modification of nuclear decay rates by changes
in atomic states. Tecnic Research Laboratories, Nevada. April, 1993. 28 p. [Protocol for design, test and
implementation of decay rate change effects to nuclear waste materials].

23.          Rauscher, Elizabeth A.  The properties of Plutonium and comparison to other metallic elements.
University of California, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. February 23, 1991. [Set basis for variable decay rates
of the radioactive nuclides -- and their interaction with electromagnetic and gravitational forces].

24..          Rein, Glen.  Ability of non-Hertzian energy to modulate Cobalt-60 radioactivity.  [Manuscript prepared
for Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency presentation by the Planetary Association for Clean Energy].
1 sheet. 1995.

25..          Rein, Glen.  Utilization of a cell culture bioassay for measuring quantum fields generated from a
modified Caduceus Coil.  In: Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference,
Boston, Massachusetts. IECEC, c/o American Nuclear Society. August, 1991. 4 pages. [Specific details
regarding protocol and procedure used for modulation of radioactivity].

26.          Smith, Wilbert B.. The new science. Ottawa. The Planetary Association for Clean Energy. 1995. Keith
Press. 1964. 72 p.

27.          Soinski, A. J., Elizabeth A. Rauscher and J. O. Rasmussen. Alpha particle amplitude and phases in
the decay of 253Es.  Bulletin of American Physical Society. Volume 18, 1973. p.768. [Modulation of decay rate
of radionuclides by extra nuclear environmental conditions].

28.          Yull Brown's Gas. Planetary Association for Clean Energy Newsletter. Vol. 6 (4), July, 1993. p. 10 - 11.

29.          Whittaker, E. T..  On the partial differential equations of mathematical physics. Mathematische
Annalen. Vol. 57,. 1903. p. 333-355. [Demonstrates that a standing scalar potential wave can be decomposed
into a special set of directional electromagnetic waves that convolute into a standing scalar potential wave. As a
corollary, then, a set of bi-directional electromagnetic waves -- stress waves -- can be constructed to form such
a wave in space. Whittaker's wave represents a standing wave of variation in the local curvature of vacuum.]

30.          Whittaker, E. T..  On an expression of the electromagnetic field due to electrons by means of two
scalar potential functions.  Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society.  Vol. 1. 1904. p. 367-72. [Shows
how to turn a standing scalar potential wave back into electromagnetic energy, even at a distance, by scalar
potential interferometry, anticipating and greatly expanding the famous Aharonov-Bohm effect, predating the
modern (Bohm) hidden variable theory of quantum potentials.  Such a procedure could be developed to
neutralize radioactive nuclei.]


Proceedings of the Second International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Conference
Texas A&M University - September  13-14, 1996

(C) All Rights Reserved. The following article is copyrighted by the author and is published on this web site
solely for educational purposes. The text may not be downloaded, copied or distributed without the express
consent of the author.
Also see Clean Energy Review


PESWiki.com -- Pure Energy Systems Wiki -- your publicly editable site about new energy technologies. Power
to the people!




Directory:Steorn Free Energy
From PESWiki

Device built to characterize the Steorn magnet motor concept, which proves more energy output than is put into
the system. (K-Toy Video; Aug. 30, 2007)
For many years Steorn has developed technology to help combat counterfeiting and fraud in the plastic card
and optical disc industries.
In 2003 Steorn undertook a project to develop more efficient micro generators. Early into this project the
company developed certain generator configurations that appeared to be over 100% efficient. Further
investigation and development has led to the company's present all-magnet motor technology which allegedly
produces free energy. The technology is patent pending.
•        Orbo Free Energy Demo Botched (http://pesn.com/2007/07/05/9500478_Orbo_Demo/) - Widely
publicized demo of Steorn's free energy prototype at the Kinetica Museum in London on July 4, 2007, promised
to be streamed live around the world, opens with the device not working. Steorn shut down the botched demo
on July 6. (PESN; July 5, 2007)
Bear in mind that even if the concept is sound, the important milestone (not yet achieved) is to derive a
configuration for implementing the concept that is cost-effective and reliable.
Many comments originally posted on this page have been moved to the discussion page corresponding to this
page.
Table of contents [hide]
1 About
1.1 Official Website
1.2 Videos
1.2.1 K-Toy Video
1.2.2 Other Videos
1.3 Independent Verification
1.4 Patents
1.5 The Challenge
1.5.1 Registration Deadline Passed
1.5.2 NEC Involvement
1.5.3 Licence to be made generally available and Jury process underway
1.5.4 April 13, 2007 update on progress
1.5.5 July 4, 2007; 10-day demonstration pending
1.5.6 Botched Demo Start
1.5.7 July 6, 2007: demostration cancelled
1.5.8 July 10, 2007; Orbo drawings
1.6 Theoretical Physics
1.7 Software Modeling
1.8 In the News
1.8.1 Steorn Press Releases
1.8.2 Steorn Blog
1.8.3 PES Network Coverage
1.8.4 Other Press Coverage
1.9 Discussions
1.9.1 Forums
1.9.2 Dr. Mike Observations
1.9.2.1 It's all in Sean's Head
1.10 Steorn Ltd.
1.11 Related Links
1.12 Contact
2 See also
[edit]
About
[edit]
Official Website
•        http://www.steorn.com
o        Demo page (http://www.steorn.com/orbo/demo)
o        About Steorn (http://www.steorn.com/about)
o        Press Releases (http://www.steorn.com/news/releases)
o        News Coverage (http://www.steorn.com/news/coverage/)
o        Orbo Technology (http://www.steorn.com/orbo/technology)
o        Forum (http://www.steorn.com/forum/?p=3)
[edit]
Videos
[edit]
K-Toy Video
This video feaatures Thieu Knapen, founder of Kinetron (http://www.kinetron.nl/), referring to a gizmo he built to
characterize Steorn's invention concept, to document whether or not it produced more energy out than was put
in; and his surprize that it does work -- something he did not think was possible. He now is apparently involved
in developing the technology to market. See his website: http://www.kinetron.nl/
Audio and parts of the video have been available since the beginning of this year, but this is the first time non-
insiders get to see the full video.
On Sept. 1, 2007, an anonymous source wrote:
"The cat is out of the bag now, so I can freely point to the firm Kinetron (http://www.kinetron.nl/) as a partner of
Steorn. It is K that makes the devices - S only designs them. In the video Knapen of K says he already, in the
rig he constructed at Kinetron, was getting 25% and it was just the beginning - that was nearly a year ago. The
problem was then it was the stop-start machine as seen in the video. It was found that continuous motion could
also give a gain and would be simpler to build and maintain. They are seeking to perfect continuous motion as
they want to run with that. After all - Kinetron is a supplier to Swatch and other giants. It is well known in the
industry."
See K-Toy Video Discovered (http://freeenergytracker.blogspot.com/2007/08/k-toy-video-discovered.html) -
Background and comments. (FreeEnergyTracker; August 30, 2007)
[edit]
Other Videos
http://www.nextenergynews.com/freeenergy/freeenergy1.html
http://www.nextenergynews.com/freeenergy/freeenergy6.html
•        Steorn videos linked from PESwiki Video-page (http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Videos#Steorn)
MAY 9TH 2007 - portions of Steorn lecture at university college of dublin, may 4th 2007!
•        Steorn Part 1 - michaeldoyle - 9 min - May 8, 2007 - Lecture on Steorn's perpetual motion machine.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9nYyypgNWc
•        Steorn Part 2 - michaeldoyle - 9 min - May 8, 2007 - Lecture on Steorn's perpetual motion machine.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y7kKuSHjBbY
•        Steorn Part 3 - michaeldoyle - 9 min - May 8, 2007 - Academic response to Steorn's perpetual motion
machine claims.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Vwj0A0TWr4
•        Steorn Part 4 - michaeldoyle - 3 min - May 8, 2007 - Academic response to Steorn's perpetual motion
machine claims
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJ7JhlEoL-w
•        Steorn Part 5 - michaeldoyle - 8 min - May 8, 2007 - Q&A session with Steorn CEO Sean McCarthy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EhMc3Xr6htM
[edit]
Independent Verification
See Directory:Steorn Free Energy:Validation Recommendations - A page devoted to coming up with a listing of
recommended testing procedures for use by the Steorn jury.

The Steorn website (http://www.steorn.net/en/technology.aspx?p=5) says:
During 2005 Steorn embarked on a process of independent validation and approached a wide selection of
academic institutions. The vast majority of these institutions refused to even look at the technology; however,
several did. Those who completed the testing have all confirmed our claims but none will publicly go on record.

On Aug 25, 2006, The Guardian Unlimited (http://environment.guardian.co.uk/energy/story/0,,1858172,00.html)
reports (from facility visit by Steve Boggan):
There have been no fewer than eight independent validations of their work conducted by electrical engineers
and academics `with multiple PhDs' from world-class universities. But none of them will talk to me, even off the
record. I am promised a diagram explaining how the system works, but then Steorn holds it back, saying its
lawyers are concerned about intellectual property rights. And that European partner, the one with the moving,
almost perpetual, prototypes? It won't talk to me either and Steorn has undertaken not to name it.
On October 11th, 2006, a page (http://www.steorn.net/en/results.aspx?p=5) was opened on the Steorn website
whose title is:
'Test methods applied to Steorn technology and results' . Here, one may scroll through slides, some of them
movies, of ways to test the magnets in part of their device. More details are to be made available soon,
according to Steorn.
On March 7, 2007, the Steorn website (http://www.steorn.com/orbo/claim/) states:
Orbo produces free, clean and constant energy - that is our claim. By free we mean that the energy produced
is done so without recourse to external source. By clean we mean that during operation the technology
produces no emissions. By constant we mean that with the exception of mechanical failure the technology will
continue to operate indefinitely.
The sum of these claims for our Orbo technology is a violation of the principle of conservation of energy,
perhaps the most fundamental of scientific principles. The principle of the conservation of energy states that
energy can neither be created or destroyed, it can only change form.
Because of the revolutionary nature of our claim, not only to the world of science but to the world in general,
Steorn issued a challenge to the scientific community in August 2006 to test our technology and report their
findings. The process of validation that has resulted from this challenge is currently underway, with results
expected by the end of 2007.
[edit]
Patents

Figs. 4-6 of Low Energy Magnet Actuator (http://v3.espacenet.com/origdoc?
DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO2006035419&F=0&QPN=WO2006035419) Patent application by Steorn. April 6, 2006.
•        Low Energy Magnet Actuator (http://v3.espacenet.com/origdoc?
DB=EPODOC&IDX=WO2006035419&F=0&QPN=WO2006035419) (patent application) - arrangement of
magnets and a magnetic shield on a linear slide; the operative principle seems to be low-energy switching of
the magnetic fields.
•        US2006066428A1 (http://www.freeenergynews.com/Directory/MagneticMotors/Steorn/US2006066428A1.
pdf) (pdf) U.S. patent application.
Abstract  
A low energy magnet actuator allows magnetic fields to be turned on and off using a small amount of energy.
The magnetic actuator according to the invention generally includes a base suitable for the support of a
plurality of magnets. An actuatable shield is positioned in relation to the plurality of magnets so that it effectively
blocks the magnetic field when it is positioned over at least one of the magnets. The magnetic fields of the
plurality of magnets interact in a manner that allows low energy actuation of the shield.
Company Statement  
The patent ... is not a patent on the core steorn technology. Due to the fact that the US patent office does not
allow patents with this claim we have filed a sequence of patents wich describe various aspects of the
technology.
This is 'patently untrue': a keyword search of American patent applications returns dozens (the latest filed on
the 21st December 2006) of them which claim 'perpetual motion'. What grounds would the USPO have
therefore for rejecting the Steorn claim? There are far sillier ones (including the 'classic' overbalancing wheel)
on file. Art Dent.
The patent ... is at the PCT stage and hence is available to the public. Our other patents are currently pre-PCT
and will move to the PCT phase (and hence be available to the public) in the near future. [1] (http://www.steorn.
net/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=41&page=1#Item_0)
[edit]
The Challenge
As published at http://www.steorn.net/en/technology.aspx?p=5
Steorn’s technology produces free, clean and constant energy. This provides a significant range of benefits,
from the convenience of never having to refuel your car or recharge your mobile phone, to a genuine solution
to the need for zero emission energy production. It also provides a secure supply of energy, since the
components of the technology are readily available.
The technology is in a constant state of development. The company has focused for the past three years on
increasing power output and the development of test systems that allow detailed analysis to be performed.
Steorn’s technology appears to violate the ‘Principle of the Conservation of Energy’, considered by many to be
the most fundamental principle in our current understanding of the universe. This principle is stated simply as
‘energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only change form’.
Steorn is making three claims for its technology:
1.        The technology has a coefficient of performance greater than 100%.
2.        The operation of the technology (i.e. the creation of energy) is not derived from the degradation of its
component parts.
3.        There is no identifiable environmental source of the energy (as might be witnessed by a cooling of
ambient air temperature).
The sum of these claims is that our technology creates free energy.
This represents a significant challenge to our current understanding of the universe and clearly such claims
require independent validation from credible third parties. During 2005 Steorn embarked on a process of
independent validation and approached a wide selection of academic institutions. The vast majority of these
institutions refused to even look at the technology; however, several did. Those who completed the testing
have all confirmed our claims but none will publicly go on record.
In early 2006 Steorn decided to seek validation from the scientific community in a more public forum, and as a
result have published the challenge in The Economist. The company is seeking a jury of twelve qualified
experimental physicists to define the tests required, the test centres to be used, monitor the analysis and then
publish the results.
Steorn has decided to publish its challenge in The Economist because of the breadth of its readership. "We
chose it over a purely scientific magazine simply because we want to make the general public aware that this
process is about to commence and to generate public support, awareness, interest etc for what we are doing."
Register (http://www.steorn.net/en/register.aspx?p=9)
[edit]
Registration Deadline Passed
The registration deadline passed on Sep 8th, 2006. At that stage nearly 5000 had registered to become jury
members, but initial sorting showed that only roughly 1000 of these had valid credentials. As of Sept 9th, 2006
Steorn has therefore entered the pre-phase-1 stage, where they "Analyze list of scientists, contact and verify
interest, choose twelve and negotiate terms." When this phase is over, Phase 1 proper begins, when they will
"Confirm that the Steorn technology has a coefficient of performance greater than 100%."
On Sept 13th, e-mails went out to (at least some of) the scientists who had applied to go on the jury, asking for
details of their academic careers.
On Sept 27th, e-mails went out to (at least some of) the scientists who had applied to go on the jury, saying that
midnight, 5th October 2006, had been set as the deadline for receipt of synopses. A shortlist should be
generated from all the synopses received by the deadline, accorning to Steorn. From the 9th October 2006,
Steorn intends to take about two weeks to contact applicants on the shortlist to judge their availability as
potential jury members. From near the end of October 2006 Steorn should then start on the jury selection
process.
[edit]
NEC Involvement
On Aug. 19, 2006, the New Energy Congress was made aware of this challenge and phoned the company to
offer its services in the validation process.
[edit]
Licence to be made generally available and Jury process underway
On the 11th of January 2007 Steorn announced that they would make the licence for their device available to
all interested parties, from individual enthusiasts to larger research organisations, for a 'nominal fee' after the
validation process had been completed [2] (http://www.steorn.net/en/news.aspx?p=2&id=981). They also
revealed that the jury process was now underway, but that no further news on the process would be
forthcoming until the end of the first financial quarter of 2007 [3] (http://www.steorn.net/forum/comments.php?
DiscussionID=38131&page=2#Item_37).

[edit]
April 13, 2007 update on progress
•        update on progress (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h3aaRrEIp-0) - posted April friday 13th, 2007.
o        Steorn/Orbo Core Technology update:
        Orbo is based upon the principle of time variant magneto-mechanical interactions. The core output from
our Orbo technology is mechanical. This mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy using
standard generator technology either by integrating such technology directly with Orbo or by connecting the
mechanical output from Orbo to the generation technology. The efficiency of such mechanical/electrical
conversions is highly dependent on the components used and is also a function of size.
        Orbo technology is subject to continuous development. This development is focused on improving the
manufacturability of the technology, production costs and power density. Orbo was initially developed as using
stop-start mechanisms (with a power density of 0.5 Watts per cm3), Steorn is currently finalizing the
development of constant motion systems and a significant improvement in power density is anticipated.
[edit]
July 4, 2007; 10-day demonstration pending

Sean McCarthy preparing for major demo
(compiled from a couple of sources)
[If you can attend this event, and would be willing to report for PESN, please contact Sterling D. Allan.]
A demo will take place indoors at a single location in London, possibly the Kinetica Museum (http://www.kinetica-
museum.org/), and will last 10 days. Sean has stated that it will begin in the first week of July, and that it is
intended to coincide with (and ride the wave of environment-friendly media attention generated by) Al Gore’s
Live Earth (http://www.liveearth.org/) concert on July 7th.
You won't have to rely on a video alone. A number of pretty decent physicists, engineers, and technical folks
are going to see it in person and the demo will be open to the public at large in London for more than a week.
One expert is of particular interest: "Dr. Mike". Apparently, his trip is being paid by Steorn but he's a reputable,
published authority with an independent view. He's taking with him a laptop equipped with data coupling gear
and magnetometers, temperature sensors, accelerometers, and so on. Steorn has said they will allow him (and
a few others) direct access to the device and even will allow some degree of disassembly (they told him to "take
his screwdriver"). He signed a non disclosure agreement (NDA) which precludes him from revealing trade
secrets but does not prevent him from expressing opinions about legitimacy, fraud, and the like. It now seems
all of this takes place in the open more or less at the Kinetica Museum starting Wednesday.
You can follow everything at:
•        http://freeenergytracker.blogspot.com
•        http://dispatchesfromthefuture.com
Also, for official updates one should consult
•        http://www.steorn.com/
•        http://www.steorn.com/orbo/demo
[edit]
Botched Demo Start

•        Orbo Free Energy Demo Has Botched Start (http://pesn.com/2007/07/05/9500478_Orbo_Demo/) -
Widely publicized pending demo of Steorn's free energy prototype at the Kinetica Museum in London, promised
to be streamed live around the world, opens with the device not working and a no-show on the Orbo demo site,
at least for the first 24 hours. A video now shows the device not running. (PESN; July 5, 2007)

[edit]
July 6, 2007: demostration cancelled
Further to Steorn’s announcement yesterday (5th July) regarding the technical difficulties experienced during
the installation of its “Orbo” technology at the Kinentica Museum in London, Steorn has decided to postpone
the demonstration until further notice. Over the next few weeks the company will explore alternative dates for
the public demonstration (read more on Steorn site (http://www.steorn.org/news/releases/?id=1001)).
[edit]
July 10, 2007; Orbo drawings
User "Axle" posted on the Steorn forum (http://www.steorn.com/forum/comments.php?
DiscussionID=58938&page=2#Item_18) his best estimation based on the Orbo photos.

The "stator" is shown in green and blue, and contains a circular arrangement of eight magnets fit into slots
around the periphery of a central cavity. In that cavity spins the "rotor", with four magnets around its
circumference. The stator and rotor are connected by two bearings, seen in orange -- the weak links that,
according to Sean, put an end to the demo.
[edit]
Theoretical Physics

•        Theoretical Physics for Steorn's Free Energy Challenge - Tom Bearden presents some theoretical
physics explanations that could support the recent revolutionary announcement of a free energy device by the
Irish company Steorn, who claim to have an all-magnet motor. (PESWiki; Aug. 25, 2006)
Skeptic's view
Tom Bearden is regarded by some skeptics as lacking credentials and not qualifying as a theoretical physicist.
Steorn should be given a fair validation of their proposed free-energy, but information from Bearden on
theoretical physics has been attacked by skeptics. A skeptica view of Bearden is at http://www.phact.
org/e/z/BeardenReview.htm
[edit]
Software Modeling
Question  
Does their invention match the known models of magnetism, or contradict them. In other words, could they
simulate their invention in a simulator? -- Nathan Allan (April 28, 2007)
Answer  
Yes, we use an FEA package called Flux3D from Cedrat (http://www.cedrat.com). I should point out that the
system does require some code changes in order to demonstrate the effect which is based around Magnetic
Viscosity. -- Sean McCarthy, Steorn (Apr. 29, 2007)
[edit]
In the News
[edit]
Steorn Press Releases
•        Steorn Press Releases (http://www.steorn.com/news/releases/)
[edit]
Steorn Blog
•        http://freeenergytracker.blogspot.com
•        http://www.dispatchesfromthefuture.com
[edit]
PES Network Coverage

•        Steorn to Push Tipping Point for Magnet Motor Technology (http://pesn.
com/2006/08/21/9500298_Steorn_free_energy_gauntlet/) - Company to select jury of 12 hard-core skeptics
with high academic qualifications to review existing data, then design testing procedure, test, and publish the
results; to solidify the credentials of a radical, new energy approach. (PESN; Interview; Aug. 21, 2006)

•        Steorn calls time on application process for scientists to test free energy technology (http://pesn.
com/2006/08/25/9500299_Steorn_jury_application_deadline/) - Company will stop taking applications on Sept.
8, to serve on 12-member jury to review magnet motor free energy device, which science has hitherto said is
impossible. Expects jury-designed testing to begin by end of the year. (PESN; Aug. 25, 2006)

•        Steorn scientific jury selection progressing (http://pesn.
com/2006/10/05/9500424_Steorn_academic_credential_deadline/) - Company rocked the world in August with
its announcement of a free energy device using permanent magnets, calling for a jury of skeptical, qualified
scientists to confirm their results. Following an overwhelming response, Steorn will now begin contacting
applicants on its shortlist to establish their availability. (PESN; Oct. 5, 2006)


•        Steorn completes jury selection to test magnet motor (http://pesn.
com/2006/11/11/9500432_Steorn_jury_selection/) - Steorn announces that they have selected twelve jury
members composed of scientists and academics to test its free energy technology. More than 5000 people
applied, and 492 were determined to be "qualified scientists/engineers." (PESN; Nov. 11, 2006)


•        Nominated Forum Member Visits Steorn CEO (http://pesn.com/2006/11/21/9500435_visit_inside_Steorn/)
- Describes a viable company facility with lots of space and lots of money. Inspected two jury member files and
later confirmed their existence and credentials. Saw info on manufacturer. (PESN; Nov. 20, 2006)


•        Steorn Finalizes Contracts with Validation Jury (http://pesn.
com/2006/12/02/9500439_Steorn_jury_contracts_finalized/) - Twelve qualified scientists have signed contracts
to design a test procedure to properly analyze the free energy technology of Steorn, then report the results,
laying to rest the controversy. (PESN; Dec. 2, 2006)

•        Steorn announces plans for widespread deployment of its free energy technology post-validation (http:
//pesn.com/2007/01/12/9500446_Steorn_Deployment_Plans/) - Following the scientific validation of the
technology presently under way by the academic jury, Steorn will be making its intellectual property available
concurrently via the Internet to facilitate rapid development. (PESN; Jan. 12, 2007)

•        Orbo Free Energy Demo Has Botched Start (http://pesn.com/2007/07/05/9500478_Orbo_Demo/) -
Widely publicized pending demo of Steorn's free energy prototype at the Kinetica Museum in London, promised
to be streamed live around the world, opens with the device not working and a no-show on the Orbo demo site
for the first 24+ hours. (PESN; July 5, 2007)


•        Magnet Motors > Steorn Forum Members Post Their Own Magnet Motor Demo Video - A couple of forum
members have been kicking around ideas for how to build an all-magnet motor with no other motive force. One
of them shot a video showing acceleration of the device, but he doesn't seem to realize what he's
accomplished. (PESWiki; Jan. 5, 2008)

[edit]
Other Press Coverage
•        Google News > Steorn (http://news.google.com/news?q=steorn) 24 stories as of Aug. 18, 2006.
•        http://digg.com/search?section=news&s=orbo
•        http://www.steorn.net/en/news.aspx?task=coverage&p=2

•        Steorn Listed in Wired's Top 10 Vaporware 2007 Awards (http://www.wired.
com/gadgets/gadgetreviews/multimedia/2007/12/YE_Vaporware) - "Accolades (and raspberries) to the most-
prized products that were promised but never delivered". (Wired; Dec. 20, 2007)

•        10 Great Snake-Oil Gadgets (http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2007/11/10-awesome-gadg.html#more) -
Orbo is second on the list. Steorn, the Irish company behind Orbo, is only the latest in a long line of deluded,
incompetent or fraudulent firms to claim the scalp of the laws of thermodynamics. (Wired; Nov. 17, 2007) (See
Slashdot (http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/11/19/1616248) discussion)
•        The perpetual myth of free energy (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/6283374.stm) (BBC News; July
9, 2007)
•        News List of news stories surrounding the July 4-8, 2007 Botched Demo (http://pesn.
com/2007/07/05/9500478_Orbo_Demo/index.html#Google)
•        Steorn's Orbo "free-energy" machine demonstrated! (http://www.engadget.com/2007/07/04/steorns-orbo-
free-energy-machine-demonstrated-tomorrow/) - (EnGadget; July 4, 2007)
o        Dublin company to unveil 'free energy' device (http://www.rte.ie/news/2007/0704/steorn.html) (RTE News;
4 July 2007)
o        Perpetual Energy Machine Getting Lots of Attention (http://science.slashdot.org/article.pl?
sid=07/07/04/1628259) (Slashdot; July 4, 2007)
•        Irish technology claims energy breakthrough (http://www.siliconrepublic.com/news/news.nv?
storyid=single8713) (Silicon Republic; Ireland; July 4, 2007)
•        Steorn reveal date: Friday, April 13th (http://www.engadget.com/2007/04/10/steorn-teases-with-a-reveal-
date-friday-april-13th/) - Steorn promises to be "releasing the update on the Jury process and so on" of its
seemingly first-law-of-thermodynamics-denying Orbo "free energy" product on April 13th. Steorn has been
promising technical information about the invention and jury results for a while now, originally saying "first
quarter" 2007. (Engadget; Apr. 10, 2007)
•        AP: Steorn: Engineers Claim Machine Makes Free Energy (http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=ZFYRuYn__Ro&mode=related&search=) (video) - (posted at YouTube Sept. 12, 2006)
•        Free Energy? (http://www.firstscience.com/site/editor/0156_ramblings_14092006.asp) - (FirstScientist;
Sept. 14 2006)
•        Free Energy from Magnets? (http://www.freemarketnews.com/Feedback.asp?nid=9524) (Free Market
News Network, FL; Sep 13, 2006)

•        Race On to Prove Free Energy (http://news.sky.com/skynews/video/videoplayer/0,,31200-
energy_p20493,00.html) (video) - Irish engineers say they have built a device that creates free and clean
energy. Until now most scientists have dismissed their claims, saying that they break the most basic laws of
physics. So the inventors have come up with a unique challenge. (Sky News; UK; Sept. 9, 2006)
o        YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BNDIWY19gqA) (posted Sept. 8, 2006)
•        How Free Energy Works (http://news.sky.com/skynews/video/videoplayer/0,,31200-steorn_interview,00.
html) (video) - Steorn has developed all-magnet motor technology which produces free energy. The company's
CEO, Sean McCarthy, has explained his theory and how it works. (Sky News; UK; Sept. 9, 2006)
•        FOX Discussion about Free Energy (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WV4Ja5Cjtvc) - Sean says here
that the scientists who have reviewed this technology thus far have not been able to identify the source of the
energy. (YouTube; Aug. 28, 2006)
•        Inventor keeps his perpetual motion machine under a cloak of invisibility (http://www.timesonline.co.
uk/article/0,,2-2331264,00.html) - It is some form of an all-magnet motor and the only clue that he will give is
that it looks like “a grandfather clock, without its pendulum‿. (Times; UK; Aug. 28, 2006)
•        Steorn Challenges the First Law of Thermodynamics (http://www.zpenergy.com/modules.php?
name=News&file=article&sid=2015) - Cold Fusion champion, Steve Krivit, interviews Sean McCarthy. "My
conclusion at the end of our talk is that I have no idea what to make of all this." (ZPEnergy; August 25, 2006)
o        Introduction to the interview and two sound clips (http://newenergytimes.com/Audio/2006Steorn-
McCarthyIntro-Aug24.mp3) (2:47 minutes)
o        Full interview (http://newenergytimes.com/Audio/2006Steorn-McCarthyFull-Aug24.mp3) - (51 minutes,
includes introduction)
•        The scientists who claim they can create free energy (http://environment.guardian.co.uk/energy/story/0,,
1858172,00.html) - On-site visit. "There is a test rig with wheels and cogs and four magnets meticulously
aligned so as to create the maximum tension between their fields and one other magnet fixed to a point
opposite. A motor rotates the wheel bearing the magnets and a computer takes 28,000 measurements a
second. The magnets, naturally, act upon one another. And when it is all over, the computer tells us that almost
three times the amount of energy has come out of the system as went in." (The Guardian Unlimited; UK; Aug.
25, 2006)
o        These men think they're about to change the world (http://www.steorn.net/en/news.aspx?p=2&id=261) -
Mirror at Steorn.net (The Guardian; August 25, 2006)
o        Mirrored at The Hindu (http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/008200608251921.htm)
o        LIMITLESS CLEAN, FREE ENERGY (http://www.freemarketnews.com/WorldNews.asp?nid=19713) Refers
to Guardian story. (FreeMarketNews.com; August 28, 2006)
•        BBC4 Radio Interview (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbNBYnqDfBQ)(audio) - Sean McCarthy
interviewed August 28, 2006
•        Steorn: A Game or Not A Game, That Is The Question (http://www.argn.
com/archive/000453steorn_a_game_or_not_a_game_that_is_the_question.php) - The social, economic, and
political ramifications are huge. Not to mention the scientific ones. (Alternate Reality Gaming Network (ARGN);
August 24, 2006)
•        Free, Clean, Unlimited Energy for All? (http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=2343913&page=1) -
A company in Dublin, Ireland claims to have developed a machine that, if true, would be one of the most
significant innovations in human history, changing the lives of every person on the planet. Top scientists are
not buying it. (ABC News; Aug. 23) [Cites PESN (http://pesn.
com/2006/08/21/9500298_Steorn_free_energy_gauntlet/) story]
•        Steorn's free energy seems curiously expensive - Rupert Goodwins (http://comment.zdnet.co.
uk/rupertgoodwins/0,39020691,39281444,00.htm) - Amazing claims require amazing proof. A good Web site,
top-notch PR and costly adverts don't quite measure up. (ZDNet; UK; Aug. 22, 2006)
•        Get Your Free Energy Here! (http://blog.sciam.com/index.php?
title=get_your_free_energy_here&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1) - A firm in Dublin claims to have invented a
technology that extracts "free energy" from magnetic fields... (Scientific American; Aug. 22, 2006)
•        Perpetual Motion Claim Probed (http://www.wired.com/news/technology/gizmos/0,71626-0.html?
tw=wn_index_2) - Sean McCarthy believes his small Irish high-tech company has overturned one of physics'
most fundamental laws. (Wired; Aug. 21, 2006)
•        Scientists flock to test 'free energy' discovery (http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,
1854305,00.html) - A man who claims to have developed a free energy technology which could power
everything from mobile phones to cars has received more than 400 applications from scientists to test it. (The
Observer; UK; Aug. 20, 2006)
•        Irish energy miracle 'a joke' (http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/irish-energy-miracle-a-
joke/2006/08/19/1155408071307.html) - "It violates a very fundamental principle of physics, and flies in the
face of 2000-years-plus of physics. It's an incredibly big claim." (The Age; Australia; Aug. 20, 2006)
•        Irish company challenges scientists to test 'free energy' technology (http://news.yahoo.
com/s/afp/20060818/bs_afp/irelandscienceenergy) - An Irish company has thrown down the gauntlet to the
worldwide scientific community to test a technology it has developed that it claims produces free energy.
(Yahoo News; Aug. 18, 2006)
•        Irish company challenges scientists to test 'free energy' technology (http://www.physorg.
com/news75115456.html) - An Irish company threw down the gauntlet on Friday to the worldwide scientific
community to test a technology it has developed that it claims produces free energy. (PhysOrg; Aug. 18, 2006)
•        Fox New interview with Steorn CEO (http://youtube.com/watch?v=MDV9Al0e_T0) - About 3 minute
interview with Niel Cavuto on Fox News
[edit]
Discussions
See Talk:Directory:Steorn Free Energy - many comments, skeptic views, rebuttals, theories, etc.

[edit]
Forums
•        Steorn website forum (http://www.steorn.net/forum/?p=3)
•        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/steorn_test - The purpose of this discussion list, overseen by the New
Energy Congress, is to come up with recommendations for consideration by the Steorn jury, that they might use
in analyzing the Steorn free energy device. (Aug. 30, 2006)
•        Irish Company Claims Free Energy (http://slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=06/08/21/173253) (Slashdot; August
21, 2006)
•        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/steorn/ [dormant and spam infested] - Discuss the revolutionary energy
claims made by Steorn
•        http://fizzx.com/ - The (independent) Steorn Replications Board
[edit]
Dr. Mike Observations
[edit]
It's all in Sean's Head
On July 11, 2007, a skeptic from the Stoern forum who was invited to the London demo, provided the following
assessment (http://www.steorn.com/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=58983&page=1#Item_0):

I will write up a full report and post it on my own web site in a few days. I wrote something on the plane which is
good but not complete. I suspect one could write a book about all the experiences we've had here.
My opinion - and it really is only my opinion - is that Sean lives in a world of delusion. His greatest strength is
the ability of convince people of things, and it is also his greatest weakness. I am certain that Sean has seen a
"start - stop" device operating. That it never existed outside his mind doesn't matter.
There are a lot of questions that remain unanswered, but let's look at a few simple ones.
Why would Steorn send a skeptical forum rep to see their core technology if Steorn did not really believe it? As
others have pointed out, if this were a hoax or scam, something would have worked. From my direct
observations of the people, there is true belief here.
Why would Sean claim that 5 bearings were broken and he sent someone to Eindhoven to get more? Because
he saw it happen. Like the story about the famous mathematician who talked to people nobody else could see
(the movie was "A Beautiful Mind") I think Sean has really seen things work. The rest of us never will.
Sean said at one point that the jury validation was the most important thing to Steorn. At this point I think the
jury is also in his mind. He probably talks to them often. He did say they have not seen any devices. How could
he have a demo, have the jury be the most important thing to the company, and not have had any jury member
see anything? Because nothing exists.
As I said, there are a great many details and questions to answer, and probably we'll never get answers to the
more interesting ones. It was an honor and a privledge to have met everyone here and at Kinetica and I will do
my best to get all the parts back to everyone who loaned me stuff and made it possible for me to help out.
[edit]
Steorn Ltd.
Steorn is a privately-owned technology research company, with 30 shareholders. Over thr last three years, the
company has spent GBP2.7m developing their "free energy" technology. The advertisement in the Economist
cost GBP75,000. [4] (http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/008200608251921.htm)
In fact, there are 2 companies registered at the stated address: Steorn Ltd, registered on the 25th July 2000
and Steorn Nominees Ltd, registered on the 16th August 2005. The last Annual Returns deadline for the first
company was the 30th September 2004, but the latest accounts were supplied on the 31st December 2003.
The latest Annual Returns deadline for the second company was the 16th July 2006 and the latest accounts
were declared on the 31st December 2006. The status of both companies is described as being 'normal'. With
which company is everybody dealing? Art Dent
[edit]
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