In Defense of the Ancestral Vision

Recently the Bolivian press made a joke out of declarations made by the
Chancellor of that country due to statements that he made about his
ancestral beliefs. He declared that according to the Indigenous Aymara
beliefs everything even rocks, have life inherently present in them, if only we
can realize it.

During a short visit to Washington I mentioned that I would like to publish an
article on that very topic in defense of his ancestral beliefs. The Chancellor
then revealed to me that the journalist who had interviewed him originally had
asked him that he speak not as Chancellor of the Republic, but as an
individual, on his vision and beliefs.

In response to that inducement he had expressed that while capitalism has
profit as its highest objective and socialism considers humanity to be of
utmost importance, the ancestral beliefs of the indigenous peoples consider
primordial life itself as the most important aspect.

He had expounded upon that, telling the journalist that his grandmother
taught him that the stones were alive and that one had to know which stones
to use to make the "huatia" a process of cooking food underground by the
use of hot stones.  He said his grandmother showed him that some stones
are young and some are old, that some are male and others female.  This
was picked up by the Bolivian press that avidly opposed the indigenous
regime democratically elected in Bolivia and attempting to introduce new
insights into Bolivian political life. The local press made front line news
deriding him and through him the government claiming that “the Chancellor
says that even rocks have sex (gender).

In this era when humanity is in imminent danger from environmental abuses
committed by a civilization that hasn’t shown how to respect life in its fullest,
it is necessary that we put to the side our political caps and that we listen to
the wisdom coming from peoples who have maintained the ecological
balance within their communities and who are still in contact with the
knowledge of the great civilizations of the past.

Lamentably, our civilization, in trying to establish scientific certainty of the
origin of life, has lost clear sight of its importance.

Charles Darwin himself in his old age exclaimed:

I have spent my life trying to establish what the origin of life is and now I see
that my life has slipped through my fingers.”

What we want to propose in this short paper is that matter is product of life
itself and not that matter is the origin of life as Darwin proposed it.

Analysis of the complexities involved in living organisms has resulted in such
enlightened views about intelligent design in nature as Philip Johnson's:
"Darwin on Trial" as far back as 1991,  "Evolution a Theory in Crisis" by
Michael Denton , "Darwin's Black Box" by Michael Behe and The Design
Intelligence by William A. Dembsky.

Nevertheless there is simple logic to regain that understanding that even a
child could comprehend:

If there is no life in the seed, the tree would not exist, and therefore neither
the table nor the seat where we are sitting on.

If there were no life in the semen of your father you would not have a
material body.

Regrettably our civilization in trying to be certain of the origin of life has lost
touch with the importance of life (and the fact that nothing exists independent
of life.

The science called cybernetics deals with artificial intelligence and has an
established mathematical proof of the complexity of a system.

This theorem that is the basis of robotics stipulates that a system of
complexity “n” in robotic function, by itself and without external interference
can only generate a system of complexity “n-1”.

Or in practical terms a computer hooked up to a robotic assembly device
can assemble a refrigerator.  But a refrigerator hooked up to the same
assembly system cannot produce a computer.  The higher complexity is
capable of producing the lower complexity in this automation, the lower
complexity cannot produce the higher.

This mathematical theorem dethrones evolution as Darwin proposed it,
because it points to the necessity of an organizing system of higher
intelligence and complexity governing the development of species, making
simple organisms into more complex ones.

Therefore the automatic evolution of a simpler organism into a more
complex one is not possible, even less the possibility that matter could
organize itself into systems that can sustain life.

Thus it is unfortunate that from Darwin on, western science has tried to
convince intellectuals that life comes from matter.

From a strictly scientific viewpoint we are in an era in which Darwinism is not
generally and blindly accepted anymore. Further his theory of evolution is
being seen as a justification for imperialism: the proposition that only the
fittest should survive is now viewed as a justification for the superior imperial
powers to subdue and even eliminate the weakest members of global

Life is the origin of matter and thus the vision that life is of utmost
importance is the correct one.

Scientific institutions that promise to create life from matter have never
succeeded, and even though scientists play dangerously with genetic
mutation and the development of clones and fetus in vitro, they have not
been able to create life in the laboratory.

We have developed techniques to manipulate natural growth but we have not
learned to respect life and that is a very dangerous situation for our

In Europe and in the United States the giving over of great areas to
monoculture, growth of one crop only, and that genetically modified, is
causing bees to suffer from malnutrition and die off in alarming numbers.  
Then scientists ask, “How are we going to pollinate?”  In China because of
the lack of bees, people have to pollinate fruit trees by hand using feathers
at only 1/30th the rate the bees could.

Factory farms that produce chicken for human consumption adopt many
cruel practices and the chickens are not even considered animals by the
FDA so that legally the producers cannot be held accountable for cruelty to
animals. On growth hormones, the chickens grow double breasts, the
turkeys become so heavy they cannot walk and then we see this reflected in
the consumers of these becoming obese and ill, victims of the American

On hormones, pigs are grown to enormous size to produce enormous hams
and the cows’ udders are so large that the animals cannot stand. MacDonald’
s apparently removes the calves’ eyes and feeds them in the dark so their
flesh is tender.

And all this is based on the justification that the stronger species, “the fittest”
can dominate the weaker for its advantage and this is passed off as “natural.”

Mother Nature is wise and very tolerant but eventually reactions occur from
abuses, as we see now with global warming widespread draughts, floods,
cyclones and earthquakes. Pestilence and plagues are making themselves
felt and so the humble message of the people with ancestral knowledge
should be heard.

Lamentably our social theories mimic these illogical steps and propose that
the socio-economic development of our species is due only to the desire of
man to improve his material wellbeing.  This we know as historical
materialism. Marx meticulously elaborated a social theory which was
supposed to solve inequities but communism and socialism failed and many
perished in the attempt; still people were hungry and impoverished, national
economies were ruined and workers unemployed.

The social theory we would like to put forward is to follow the models of
social organization followed by ancient cultures where primordial emphasis
is placed on the value of life and nature, where every human, animal and
vegetable is seen as an integral part of life.  Equality cannot be enacted
materially, everyone is different and is born with unique resources, abilities,
propensities and desires but if we see a common spiritual origin we can
recognize that we are all brothers, children of the same Father God and
Mother Nature.  This vision creates unity, peace and tolerance in the social

The basic tenets of the Aymara peoples are that life (Ajayu) exists in
everything as Jisca Ajayu (the smaller soul) and the smaller soul is
accompanied by the Jacha Ajayu (the Great Soul).  From the individual’s
desires come the Kamasa (astral or subtle body) and eventually the material
body.  We could undertake a discussion on comparative religions at this
point and see that these concepts are universal.  For limitations of space I
will just present three comparisons that are familiar to me:

Jisca Ajayu –Spirit Soul—Jiva Atma

Jacha Ajayu—Holy Spirit —Param Atma

Viracocha—God Almighty—Bhagavan Vishnu

Pacha Kamaj—the Husband of Nature — Lord Shiva (Umapati)

Pacha Mama—the Universal Mother Nature —Goddess Uma or Prvati
(Shiva’s Wife)

These truths are often obfuscated in ethnocentricity and dogma created by
the mentality that pervaded Christianity during the conquest.

The countries that adopted Marxism have been faced with economic
debacle even where they gained power democratically.  Post-Marxist
governments have progressed economically under capitalism but the system
has been fraught with injustices.  There is still much to accomplish as far as
attaining the social justice that sensitive intellectuals yearn for.

It is time that intellectuals analyze the reason for these failures and
dispassionately recognizes that we need a radically different solution.  The
failure of Marxism is not so evident in its theory.  The failure is in what is the
basis for the theory:  historical materialism.

To accept that society advances solely because man searches to better
himself materially relegates man to matter.  Matter is the result of life not the
cause of it.  The initial equation is that the origin of life is life and that matter
is a result of life;  that is why it is correct to say that everything even the
rocks have life and that nothing would exist if it were not for life.

The ancestral vision that man is responsible to protect life, to honor Mother
Nature and not exploit her is the correct vision.  Real equality is based on
the realization that we are all part of this life that gives life to all, not only that
men are brothers but that we are responsible for the animals that are like our
little brothers.  We must recognize that we are all subject to the tremendous
forces of nature that can make whole populations, indeed the whole human
race, vanish in a matter of hours.

The fact is that since matter is a result of the existence of life, matter itself in
all its forms can be considered to be part of the whole organic cosmogonal

No one who has participated in the purificatory ceremony in North America
known as the “Sweat Lodge” could deny that the hot rocks speak as they
give off their purifying heat.

To discard the beliefs of ancestral peoples is like burning a book before
reading it.  

The acknowledgement of the Jisca Ajayu (Individual Soul) in every form of
life and the omnipresence of the Jacha Ajayu (Super Soul) indicates
localized and cosmic awareness to the Andean peoples.  Modern science
does not have a better theory to explain the dynamic equilibrium of the
universe than this.

The cultures of our ancestors honored life in all its forms.  Unfortunately for
us, the prevailing materialistic viewpoint of the current era does not
appreciate the other point of view fully.  When someone with ancient wisdom
speaks of even the rocks having life, to the disgrace of the scientific
intellectuals influenced by impersonal ethnocentric educational tendencies,
this ancient understanding is ridiculed when it could enhance the world view
of all.

On Social organization:
The question is what ancient social theory can we apply to our current
process to be able to successfully organize a nation productively to
eliminate inequalities, hunger and misery?

Our authorities have categorically ignored the humble cry of those who have
preserved the wisdom of ancient cultures who respected nature, life and its
origin and who were able to guide societies where honesty, peace and
prosperity prevailed.

The fact that Bolivia is the first government to legitimately elect a genuine
indigenous leader carries with it a great responsibility to lead the world
towards a greater consciousness of love and respect for life and nature.

This author has not yet deeply studied the ancient indigenous traditions of
our country but has had an opportunity to study the Vedic scriptures of
Ancient India and has been captivated by not only the anthropological
similarities between the two cultures but also the anthological and
archaeological similarities that he has found.  For this reason he would like
to offer his knowledge although elementary towards a universal
understanding that can give impulse to the Bolivian process so that its effect
may be felt around the planet.

The present essay is just the first part (of a treatise) that deals with (the
outstanding problem of) social organization.

Equality in Society:

Great thinkers have always aspired to attain an equitable society.  
Nevertheless material nature always produces inequalities in the initial
conditions, aspirations and capacities of man.

All scriptures proclaim that man has been created equal before God and this
is a fact from the spiritual point of view.  We are all children of one Father
and therefore actually brothers.

For the social body to function men have different aptitudes and
motivations.  Seeing these natural propensities for material ends is what
skews the vision of the intellectual.  As we have already suggested, from
Darwinism to Marxism our western intellectuals, motivated by sincere desire
but perhaps misdirected have not been able to bring about equality in
society and have been deviated from the truth.

Marxism does not succeed because it does not recognize that some men
are more intellectual and contemplative, some are better leaders and
legislators, others more inclined towards heroic behavior and others better
entrepreneurs and organizers of production or agriculturalists motivated by
profit, while others are satisfied to be of service to the rest and be
remunerated accordingly and that all men are valuable in society.  One
segment of society cannot be eliminated for the betterment of another.

If the ability in man cannot be allowed to flourish either through legislation or
fiscal policy, the social body becomes dysfunctional.  For example, if profit
motivation is removed, businessmen, agriculturalists, industrialists, bankers
and merchants find no motivation to organize their activities, put at risk their
capital, give workers employment and tribute to the state.

This has happened already many times when governments have tried to
establish planned economies and fiscal policies that strangle private

Another great area of dissention with Marxist philosophy is the theory of the
dissolution of the state.  Without executive and legislative power and an
armed forces to defend national territory and a police force to defend the
citizen there is total chaos.

The intelligentsia has been misled into thinking that life is a result of very
complex arrangements of matter and energy and has had a total lack of
spiritual understanding.

This had led to thinking of our improvement only in terms of more and better
material benefit.  The result of this thinking is that the social body, even in
the more developed countries is frustrated and degradation and lack of
morality become the norm and freshness and purity of life and its goal is lost.

We must solve this problem by changing our thinking.  Seeing that life
comes from life is a first step.  If there is no life in the seed, again, there is
no tree; therefore there is no wood.  If there is no life in the mountain there
are no rocks, gems and minerals.  If there is no life in the semen of the
father we have no body to live in.  Life again is the origin of matter and not
vice versa.  Then we could see that to respect the tree means to honor its
life and not exploit it too much for its wood.  To take what we need and not

Our intellectuals should be educated in the ancient science of the soul.  The
unique position of Bolivia with its leadership in knowledge of ancient
principles should be to chart the course of western civilization.  To do this
we need to propose and then put into practice a functional national model
that serves as an example to the world.  It is said that the best preaching is
done by example.

Social Organization with Real Wisdom:

The social body can be visualized as a human body which we depict in the
following page.  Nature is not miserly and can produce everything in
abundance when she is satisfied that we do not misuse her resources.  We
are all necessary members of society.  A nation should understand itself as
one body.  We need one another as all the cells in the body need each
other:  the head needs the arms, the stomach and the legs to function fully.
Every cell has a function.  If a cell gets sick or dies it is replaced.  These are
natural processes.  Some cells belong to the head, others to the arms, the
stomach or the legs.  The motive and function of these cells are different
and that is how nature induces activity.

We have to realize our individual function in the social body.  The wisdom of
the leader is in his capacity to direct each person towards his unique
function and motivate him according to his abilities.

These abilities are not based on hereditary caste.  This has always been the
downfall of social organization.  In the avidness of maintaining the status
quo and to perpetuate dynasties, natural systems of orders of life have
become hereditary.  In the rush to protect their descendants, many parents
want their children to take up things that perhaps they have no propensity for.

Thus in these days of technocracy, a medical doctor may be inducing his
son to take up medicine by force when in reality the child might make a
better musician.  The propensities and talents of the individual ought to be
recognized by experts outside the family.

The Social Body

Also there is a chronological order in which life is divided into four stages;
each stage corresponds a different phase of an individual’s life.

The four stages cover approximately 25 years each:

fr 5-25 yrs old         fr 25-50 yrs old         fr  50-75yrs old         fr 75-100yrs

Nature produces different individual capacities to act in a diversity of
functions necessary for the proper functioning of the social body.

These different natures are motivated by different aspirations that cause
individual activities within the necessary functions of the social body.

The social system needs intelligence to distinguish these different
capabilities from an early age and the education of the individual can be
properly directed.  In the ancient cultures of India this system is called Varna
Ashrams and should not be confused with the hereditary caste system which
has deviated the goodness and benefit of the original system.

Varna-ashrama is a system which is best managed by skilled teachers,
amautas, who work without family, racial or religious favoritism.

We have information that the current director of human resources at the
World Bank who is of Hindu origin uses a similar schematic to place
personnel properly within her organization.

There is a classic example from the Vedic literature:  at the beginning of the
Mahabharata epic,  King Bharat realizes that none of his sons have the
qualities for ruling his kingdom and he launches a campaign to find someone
young in the kingdom with the qualities of a just and noble ruler.  He finds an
ordinary citizen whom he names his heir.

Democracy with all its problems allows that popular support decides who
governs; the democratic process should be used to choose qualified leaders
who gain popular support through satisfying the social urgencies; the public
should choose consciously.  That is the real challenge.

The chronicles of the colony describe that the conquerors found in America
a well organized and just society where there were great treasures and
objects of ritual worship of the deities in the Temples and opulent
ornamentation of the Inca and the representative classes of the nation.  
There were no locks on the doors and the inhabitants felt safe and protected
by the social structure.

Greed upon finding the mineral wealth of the American Continent not only
caused the devastation of the agricultural productive base of the Inca
Empire but also caused Spain to abandon its productive agricultural and
industrial base.  In both Potosí and Madrid in the Golden Era one could buy
English cookies and French silks and the result was the complete
abandonment of agro-industrial activities which resulted in every other nation
getting ahead of Spain and Latin America, a reality from which these nations
still have not recuperated.

The investigation into ancient social systems could reveal the keys to
reestablishing a plan of social action which could bring equity and just social
organization back into practice.
The head:
The arms:Political
Leaders, soldiers,
legislative and judicial
powers , police
The stomach:
merchants, bankers,
The legs: workers,
farm labourers, miners
Nature produces men
with different abilities
and motivations for the
perfect functioning of
the social body
David Choqueuanca
Bolivian Minister of
Foreign Affairs
The vedic system of
varnashrama provides
a complete framework
of social organization
according to the
inherent nature and
motivations of the
individual that solves
the problems of
inequalities in society
and provides all
individuals with a
meaningful life and just
rewards for all their